AP Biology Ch 9

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What are the waste products of respiration?

Water and Carbon Dioxide.

Oxygen being consumed as a reactant with organic fuel is referred to:

Cellular Respiration

What is mainly used as the fuel source for constructing ATP?

The transfer of electrons during chemical reactions.

When a substance gains electrons it is:

Reduced

When a substance loses electrons it is:

Oxidized

In a chemical reaction the electron donor is referred to as the:

Reducing agent

In a chemical reaction the electron acceptor is called:

Oxidizing agent

Why are electron transport chains better at harvesting energy than moving directly to the final electron acceptor?

Less energy is wasted if it is released in small amounts over many small steps.

What is the final electron acceptor in respiration?

Oxygen.

The division of a glucose molecule into pyruvate occurs during:

Glycolysis

Where does glycolysis take place?

In the cytoplasm

What is substrate level phosphorylation

When an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate molecule to ADP.

In the following redox reaction, which compound is oxidized and which is reduced? C6H6O5 + NAD+ → C4H4O5 + NADH + H+

NAD+ is reduced and C6H6O5 is oxidized

Pyruvate is the end product of what reaction?

Glycolysis

Why does glycolysis initially require energy?

Some of the enzymes in the initial steps must be phosphorylated in order to function.

What electron carrier is reduced during glycolysis?

NAD+

What is the net ATP produced during glycolysis?

2

Would the reactions of respiration be considered anabolic or catabolic?

Catabolic

Where does the Krebs/Citric acid cycle take place?

In the mitochondrial matrix.

Why does pyruvate need to be transferred into the mitochondria via active transport?

It is a charged molecule that requires transport proteins to travel through the mitochondrial membrane.

What chemical does pyruvate get changed to in a series of enzymatic reactions before entering the Krebs cycle?

Acetyl CoA

What are the products of one turn of the Krebs cycle?

3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP

What are the products of the breakdown of one glucose molecule during the Krebs cycle?

6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP

Which products of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle are used to power oxidative phosphorylation?

NADH and FADH2

What is the function of NADH and FADH2?

They are used to shuttle electrons to the electron transport chain.

Where does oxidative phosphorylation take place?

Along the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

As you move through the compounds in the electron transport chain, the compounds become:

More electronegative

What are iron containing proteins that accept and donate electrons called?

Cytochromes

What is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain?

Oxygen

What is the final product of the electron transport chain?

Water

Does the electron transport chain directly make ATP.

No

What molecules are responsible for making ATP during oxidative phosphorylation?

ATP Synthases

What powers ATP synthases?

The hydrogen ion gradient that is established with the electron transport chain.

The process of hydrogen ions flowing through ATP synthases to produce ATP is referred to as:

Chemiosmosis

How many ATP are produced by oxidative phosphorylation?

32 to 34

Around how efficient is respiration at converting the energy stored in glucose to ATP?

Around 40%

Where does the 60% of energy lost in respiration go?

It is mainly given off as heat.

What is anaerobic glycolysis called?

Fermentation

How is fermentation different in humans and yeast cells?

In humans, the end product is lactic acid. In yeast, the end product is alcohol.

During which stage of respiration is CO2 give off?

Krebs cycle.

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