Chemistry (Chapter 4)

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Chapter 4 vocab and important notes

Tiny particles that compose elements

atoms

Atoms of any one element _____from those of another element

differ

Atoms of different elements can form __________ by combining in whole-number ratios

compounds

Chemical reactions occurs when atos are ________

separated, joined, or rearranged

T or F: Atoms of one element change into atoms of another element during chemical reactions

False

T or F: Atoms of one element are different from atoms of another element

True

The smallest particle of an element that retains its identity in chemical reactions

atom

an instrument used to generate images of individual atoms

scanning tunneling microscope

English chemist and schoolteacher who formulated a theory to describe the structure and chemical reactivity of matter in terms of Atoms

John Dalton

Greek philosopher who was among the first to suggest the existence of atoms

Democritus

In what type of ratios do atoms combine to form compounds

whole number ratios

What did Dalton discover that changes the theory about atoms being indivisible

subatomic particles

What kind of charge do electrons have?

negative

What has a positive charge?

protons

Which has a neutral charge?

neutrons

Which are found in the nucleus of the atom?

protons and neutrons

Who discovered the nucleus of the atom?

Ernest Rutherford

What kind of charge does the nucleus have?

positive

What occupies most of the volume of the atom?

electrons

T or F: According to Dalton's atomic theory, toms are composed of protons, electrons, and neutrons

False

T or F: Atoms of elements are electrically neutral

True

T or F: The mass of an electron is equal to the mass of a neutron

False

T or F: The charge on all protons is the same

True

negatively charged subatomic particles

electrons

a stream os electrons produced at the negative electrode of a tube containing a gas at low pressure

cathode ray

positively charged subatomic particles

protons

subatmic particles with no charge

neutrons

the central core of an atom, which is composed of protons and neutrons

nucleus

Which subatomic particles are charged

electrons and protons

The number of ______ in the nucleus of an atom is the atomic ______ of that element

protons, number

Because atoms are electrically neutral, the number of protons and _____ are the same

electrons

The total number of ____ and neutrons in an atom is the _______

protons, mass number

Atoms of the same element are identical in most respects, but they can differ in the number of ________ in the nucleus

neutrons

Atoms that have the same number of protons but different mass numbers are called?

isotopes

The _____ of an element is the weighted average of the masses of the isotopes of that element

atomic mass

Each of the three known isotopes of hydrogen has ___ proton in the nucleus 1

one

The most common hydrogen isotope has ___ neutrons

no

It has a mass number of ____ and is called hydrogen-1

one

T or F: The atomic number of an element is the sum of the protons and electrons in an atom of that element

False

T or F: The atomic number of an atom is the total number of protons in an atom of that element

True

T or F: Relative atomic masses are expressed in AMUs

True

T or F: The number of neutrons in the nucleus can be calculated by subtracting the atomic number from the mass number

True

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element

atomic number

an arrangement of elements according to similarities in their properties

periodic table

equals the number of neutrons plus the number of protons in an atom

mass number

the vertical column of elements in the periodic table

group

atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons

isotopes

1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom

atomic mass unit

weighed average mass of atoms in a naturally occurring sample of an element

atomic mass

a horizontal row of the periodic table `

period

Who found the electron?

J.J. Thompson

Who found protons?

Eugene Goldstein

Who found the neutron?

James Chadwick

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