Geoscience

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50 terms · Test #2

what % of earths crust is composed of only 8 natural elements

99%

The 3 most abundant elements in Earth's crust are

oxygen,silicone, and aluminum

An element or combination of elements that forms a solid, inorganic, natural compound is called a

mineral

Mafic minerals are

dark colored and high density minerals

An assemblage of minerals bound together is called a

rock

The majority of Earth's crust is composed of

igneous rock

Salt is an example of

sedimentary rock

The ancient roots of mountains are usually composed of

metamorphic rock

Transgression is not part of what cycle

rock cycle

coal is a sedimentary rock and fossil fuel formed from

plants

A scale used to classify and describe the effects of earthquakes on terrain, construction, and local damage conditions is the

modified Mercalli scale

An earthquake, submarine landslide, or eruption of an undersea volcano is capable of producing a

tsunami

The motion of seismic waves is usually initiated in a subsurface location along the fault plane called the

focus

The wave amplitude associated with a magnitude 8 quake on the Richter scale is how many times greater than that of a magnitude 6 quake

100

On average, how often would you expect an earthquake of between moment magnitude 5.0-5.9 and Mercalli V-VII to occur

> 1,000 times per year

Which of the following mountain ranges resulted from tectonic collision between two continental landmasses

all of the above

Which of the following types of crustal deformation would you be most likely to find at a divergent plate boundary

normal fault

The asthenosphere can best be described as

plastic-like

Compared to oceanic crust, continental crust is

generally more complex in content and structure

If you wanted to avoid earthquakes, which of the following areas would be the safest to live

shield

Louis Agassiz called glacially deposited boulders that differ in composition and origin from the ground on which they rest:

erratics

The material in a glacial moraine is

unsorted

Which of the following is FALSE regarding the Pleistocene ice age epoch

it represents a single continuous cold spell

Which of the following is FALSE regarding the Pleistocene ice sheets in North America

at their maximum, they extend only to the present-day Canadian border

Pluvial lakes formed in the ________ during glacial intervals as a result of ________.

southwestern U.S.; a wetter climate and/or a climate characterized by lower evaporation rates

Knowledge of Earth's interior is derived primarily from

indirect evidence involving the analysis of seismic waves

The most active tectonic regions of North and South America are on the

western coasts

The _______ is one of Earth's major layers that is partially molten and is capable of flowing very slowly

asthenosphere

The eventual catastrophic eruption of Mount Saint Helens in 1980 was

related to seafloor subduction at the west coast of North America.

Which of the following statements regarding the principal locations of volcanic activity is FALSE

Volcanoes occur around the perimeter of the Atlantic Ocean basin.

Which of the following lists of processes are in the correct sequence as to their occurrence in nature

weathering, erosion, transport, deposition

Which of the following landforms is incorrectly matched with a drainage pattern

topographically disrupted areas - parallel

Which of the following is TRUE of the snowline

The snowline decreases in elevation with increasing latitude

Which of the following is TRUE of glacial movement

The rate of internal flow is greater than the rate of basal flow

When two valley glaciers join together, they form a _______ at the point where they merge

medial moraine

The opposite of the accumulation zone in a glacier is the

ablation zone

The largest material that can be carried by a stream is carried as

bed load

For glacial-interglacial cycles, glaciation takes about _______ to develop, whereas deglaciation requires about _______ years

90,000; 10,000

Creation of a local base level through construction of a dam and reservoir on a river

would cause sediment accumulate upstream from the dam in response to decreased flow velocity.

Consider the equation Q = wdv. According to the equation, if Q (discharge) remains constant, but w and d decrease (as when a channel becomes more narrow and shallow), the velocity will

increase

Assume a warm air parcel at Earth's surface has a temperature of 21ºC (70ºF) and begins to rise upward. Assume it becomes saturated at 1000 m (3300 ft) altitude, and continues to rise to 2000 m (6600 ft) altitude. What would be the approximate temperature of the air parcel be at an elevation of 2000 m (6600 ft)

5ºC (41.0ºF)

When water freezes, its density

decreases

If water behaved like most other compounds, the

A and C only

_______ calories of _______ are required to convert 1 g of ice to liquid water

80; latent heat

Which of the following is true of precipitation in North America

The highest amounts occur in the Southeast and Northwest

Which of the following would make the best aquifer

uncemented sand that is loosely compacted

The line of contact between the zone of aeration and the zone of saturation is known as the

water table

The high plains aquifer

received much of its water from melting glaciers in the past

Which of the following soil particle sizes is usually associated with the slowest recharge rate

clay

The term "cone of depression" refers to

a depression in the water table formed by rapid groundwater withdrawal

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