The total energy released and consumed by a cell is called cell ___
Thousands of chemical reactions occur each instant throughout the body; this coordinated process of chemical change is termed ____
Metabolism arises from interactions between ____.
An organism's metabolism transforms ____ and ____ subject to the laws of thermodynamics (answ alphabetically)
A metabolic pathway has many steps. Begins with a specific molecule and ends with a __. Each are catalyzed by a specific __.
A substance that modifies and increases the rate of reaction without being consumed in the process is called a _____
The steps in a metablic pathway are either releasing or _____ energy
To modify, especially to increase, the rate of (a chemical reaction) by catalysts is called _____.
(metabolism) All reactions that involve energy transformations are divided into 2 categories: _____ and _____ (alaphabetically)
A reaction that release's energy is called a _____ reaction.
A catabolic reaction _____ energy.
A catabolic reaction serves as the primary source of energy for synthesis (= to put together) of ____.
_____ requires input of energy.
Anabolic reaction requires ____ of energy
Two types of cellular reactions in metabolism are: __ and __
The energy releasing process in which a chemical or food is used (broken down) by decomposition, into smaller pieces (break down products)
A portion of metabolism in which the cell consumes energy to produce larger molecules via smaller ones. (create needed products)
_____ is the capacity to cause change. It exists in various forms, of which some can perform work
We can talk about energy in 2 ways: __ energy and __ energy
The energy associated with motion is called ___ energy (released energy)
Light (movement of photons), electricity, movement of large objects....these are examples of ____ energy.
_____ energy is stored in the location of matter. (stored energy)
_____ energy includes chemical energy stored in molecular structure (ie., electricity stored in a battery, chemical bonds)
The study of energy transformation (energy moving around) is called __.
First law of thermodynamics - energy can be ___ and transfomred, energy cannot be created or __.
The chemical (potential) energy in food will be converted to the kinetic energy of the cheetah's movement. 1st law of ____
disorder is added to the cheetah's surroundings in the form of heat and the small molecules that are the by-products of metabolism. ___law of thermodynamics
Most chemical reactions are ____ under the appropriate conditions of reactants, products, and __.
By ___ and ___ reactants and products, cells drive reversible reactions back and forth as required by the metabolic demands of the organism.
In chemical reactions, __ is what you start with and __ is what you end up with.
_____ Reactions - reactants have more energy than do the products - net energy __ (overflow)
_____ Reactions: products have more energy than the reactants - net energy __.
Exergonic Reaction = ____ energy
Endergonic Reaction = _____ energy
In a ____ reaction an exergonic reaction provides the energy needed to drive an endergonic reaction.
Living organisms constantly use the energy from ___ reactions (digestion of food) to drive ___ reactions (formation of large organic molecules, movement, etc...)
The ___ of a chemical reaction is a measure of how fast it consumes reactants and generates __.
Rate = ___ x Time.
concentration, temperature, activation energy
Rate (of a chemical reaction ) is dependent on: reactant and product __, __, and height of the reaction's __ __ barrier (like a speed bump)
_____ energy: difference between the energy of the transition state and the energy of either the reactants or products.
Most ___ reactions would occur too slowly to be compatible with life.
A protein that speeds up a chemical reaction (acts as catalysts) is called an _____.
____ is a term describing substances that increase rates of chemical reactions.
To catalyze a reaction, an enzyme molecule must first ____ to a reactant molecule (the ___)
substrates, binds, enzyme-substrate, products, enzyme
The enzyme must come into contact with reactants (which are called __). The substrate __ to the enzyme, forming an __-__ complex, which then breaks down to release __ and __.
In reality most enzymes act on ___ or more different substrates and generate more than one ____.
The enzyme can only act on the substrate if it closely fits and binds to a particular site of the enzyme molecule called the ___ ___ (binding site)
activation energy barrier
Enzymes accelerate metabolic reactions by reducing the height of the ___ ___ ___.
Enzymes cannot affect the direction of a reaction or amount of energy released or required ---- they only affect the ___.
catalytic, affinity, enzyme, substrate, temperature, pH
Reaction rates are dependant on: __ rate, ___ of the enzyme for the substrate, ___ concentration, ___ concentration, ___, and __. (slide #20)
ADP + P = ___
What is the medium of energy exchange?
When energy is released it's either released as heat, or can be sotred to do ____.
Cells harness energy released to synthesize ____
Adenosine triphospate - the abbreviation is ____
ATP serves as an _____ store
ATP is synthesized from ____ and an inorganic ___ (P)
____ ____ (and other energy releasing reactions) supplies the energy for making ATP and ultimately cellular energy.
glycolysis, kreb's cycle, oxidative phosphorylation
Three distinct stages of glucose oxidation: ____, ___ ___, and ___ ___.
Of the three distinct stages of glucose oxidation, which one takes place in cytosol?
Of the three distinct stages of glucose oxidation, which one occurs in mitochondrial matrix?
Of the three distinct stages of glucose oxidation, which one takes place within inner mitochondrial membrane?
Of the three distinct stages of glucose oxidation, which one = splitting of sugar?
Of the three distinct stages of glucose oxidation, which stage is where ALL O2 consumption occurs in?
Of the three distinct stages of glucose oxidation, which one accounts for 100% of CO2 released?
Of the three distinct stages of glucose oxidation, which one has no oxygen consumed and no carbon dioxide produced?
The electron transport system (ETS) is located in the cristae of _____.
The electron transport system (ETS) is a series of __ carriers that pass ___ from one to the other.
In the ETS, a pair of electrons is passed from carrier to carrier, energy is released and is used to form ____
At the end of the electron transport chain, "oxygen" receives the energy-spent electrons, resulting in the production of ____.
Cells in our body experience a constant flow of materials in and out, preventing metabolic pathways from reaching ___.
__ = splitting of sugar
pyruvate, 2, pyruvate, oxygen, carbon dioxide
Glycolysis provides the energy, ___, for the Kreb's Cycle. Each glucose molecule broken down into __ (#) __ molecules. No __ consumed and no __ __ produced
2, 4, 2, glucose
Glycolysis - __ (#) ATP's consumed, __ (#) ATP's produced = net gain of __ ATP's for each molecule of glucose.
Kreb's cycle, 1
Pyruvate is the energy source for the __ __. __ (#) pyruvate powers one cycle.
1, 2, NADH, FADH2, 100, CO2, O2
Kreb's Cycle - __ (#) ATP is generated directly with each cycle --> __ (#) ATP's per glucose molecule. In addition, 4 __ and 1 __ is produced. Krebs accounts for __% of __ released. No __ consumption yet.
NADH, FADH2, oxidative phosphorylation
The Kreb's Cycle produces 4 __ and 1 __ --> which powers __ __.
electron, electrons, electron transport, 34, O2
Oxidative Phosphorylation - the NADH and FADH2 are like little __ donators. They release their __ to the __ __ chain. A total of __ (#) ATP's made for every gluose molecule. All __ consumption occurs here.
cristae of mitochondria, protein, electrons, NADH, FADH2
The electron transport system is located in the __ of __. It is a series of __ carriers that pass __ from one to the other. Electrons are donated to the ETS by __ and __.
fermentation, fermentation, lactate
What happens when oxygen is not available? Cells turn to __. During __, pyruvate formed by glycolysis is reduced to __.
NADH, electrons, oxygen
The reduction of pyruvate to lactate regenerates NAD+ from __. The NAD+ is free to pick up more __ during early steps of glycolysis, this keeps glycolysis going for a little while in the absence of __.