compare weight and gender discrimination
Weight discrimination exceeds race or gender discrimination and is at every stage of employment
a preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members
often support prejudice. A belief about the personal attributes of a group of people. Stereotypes are sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information. May be positive or negative
southerners are more....
unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its members
1. An individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race, or 2. Institutional practices that subordinate people of a given race
1. An individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sex, or 2. Institutional practices that subordinate people of a given sex
Prejudice provides one of the best examples of our _____: ____
dual attitudes system
different implicit and explicit attitudes toward a target
implicit attitudes change with _____
new habits through practice
Prejudiced and stereotypic evaluations can occur outside of _____
Most people see others as ____prejudiced than they are
Prejudiced attitudes and discriminatory behavior surface when ______
they can hide behind the screen of some other motive.
In many places, blatant prejudice is being replaced by _______
subtle prejudice - "modern racism" or "cultural racism"
Modern prejudice appears as______that leads to_____ and ______.
exaggerated reactions to isolated minority persons and patronization
Implicit attitudes have/have not been linked with discriminatory behavior (ex: physicians who scored poorly on IAT discriminated against black patients)
Different brain regions are involved in____ and ____stereotyping
automatic and consciously controlled
Outgroups that elicit the most disgust elicit brain activity in areas associated with _____, like the _____. When we think about groups we identify with, we use bits of _____
disgust and avoidance
amygdala (more primitive)
our frontal lobes.
Norms are _______. Stereotypes are ______
Gender stereotypes are much stronger than____ stereotypes.
stereotypes of men and women: accurate? and what are they
Stereotypes of men and women's restlessness, nonverbal sensitivity, aggressiveness, and so forth are pretty accurate.
Stereotypes are not _____
Attitudes toward_____ have changed almost as rapidly as attitudes towards blacks.
people perceive women more favorably
Ambivalent sexism has been found toward men:
benevolent attitudes such as powerful and hostile attitudes such as immoral
Those who endorse benevolent attitudes toward women also:
have them toward men
Men are _____ times more likely to commit suicide and be murdered
men are more likely _____
Men are more often mentally retarded or have autism. Also more likely to be in special ed
do women discriminate against women?
Women discriminate against women - lower ratings for article. But really most studies find no difference. Experiments have not demonstrated an overall tendency to devalue women's work.
Sources of social prejudice: (3)
social inequalities, socialization, and social institutions
Unequal status breeds....
We see other groups as competent or likeable, but _____
often not as both
Social dominance orientation
a motivation to have one's group dominate other social groups
The desire to be on top leads people high in social dominance to (2):
embrace prejudice and to support political positions that justify prejudice.
children's attitudes vs parents'
Children's prejudice often mirrors those perceived of their mothers. Even implicit attitudes mirror parents' explicit prejudice
believing in the superiority of one's own ethnic and cultural group, and having corresponding disdain for all other groups
is prejudice local?
Prejudice is not often toward one group. It is all around.
marks of a prejudicial person
Tend to have an intolerance for weakness, a punitive attitude, and a submissive respect for the authority in their group
why concerned with power and status?
a personality that is disposed to favor obedience to authority and intolerance of outgroups and those in lower status. Particularly prone to engage in prejudice and stereotyping
As children, they often faced harsh discipline. Project hostility to outgroups
The insecurity of authoritative children seemed to predispose them toward an excessive concern with power and status
Authoritarian tendencies surge during____
threatening times of economic recession and political upheaval
people high in social dominance orientation and authoritarian personality
Among the most prejudiced people in society
Predisposed to be leaders of hate groups
Authoritarianism and social dominance have same/different ideological roots:
Authoritarian - concern with security and control
Social dominance- concern for one's group status
2 Conclusions about North American Christianity:
1. Church members express more racial prejudice than non church members
2. Those who are more traditional or fundamentalist are more prejudice than those that are progressive
Once established, prejudice is maintained mainly by ____
People are more likely to favor or oppose discrimination after _______
hearing someone else do so
what maintains gender prejudice?
Women conform to roles and we think they belong there.
_____ are one of the institutions most prone to reinforce dominant cultural attitudes.
Institutional supports are often _____ and ______
unintended and unnoticed
⅔ of average male photos but less than ⅓ of female photos were devoted just to the face.
People's whose faces are prominent in photos seem to be more intelligent and ambitious.
when the cause of our frustration is intimidating or unknown, we often redirect our hostility
Ethnic peace is more easily attained during ____
Realistic group conflict theory
the theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources
Anti-black prejudices has occurred among what whites?
Whites closest to blacks on the socioeconomic ladder
the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to the who am I? Question that comes from our group memberships
Social identity theory: (3)
We categorize others
We identify: we have in-groups
We compare: we contrast our ingroups with outgroups
"us" - a group of people who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of common identity
"them" - a group that people perceive as distinctively different from them or apart from their ingroup
When people's personal and social identities become fused, then what?
they are more willing to fight or die for their group.
The more attached we are to our groups, the more_____ from other groups
prejudicially we judge threats
the tendency to favor one's own group
Ingroup bias is another example of _____
the human quest for a positive self-concept
BIRGing occurs most in those who ______
have just received an ego blow
We are more prone to ingroup bias when our group is (2):
small and lower in status relative to the outgroup
Outgroup stereotypes prosper when :
people feel their ingroup identity keenl
We ascribe uniquely human emotions more easily to _____
denying human characteristics to outgroup members
ingroup bias: seeing us as good or them as bad?
Ingroup bias results at least as much from perceiving that one's own group is good as from a sense that other groups are bad
SES and self-image: prejudice level
Prejudice is higher among those who are low or slipping on the socioeconomic ladder or those whose self-image is threatened
people's self-protective emotional and cognitive responses (including adhering more strongly to their cultural worldviews and prejudices) when confronted with reminders of their mortality
affirm and threaten someone: effect on outgroup evaluation
Affirm people and they will evaluate an outgroup more positively. Threaten their self-esteem and they will make up for it by denigrating an outgroup
People low and high in prejudice sometimes have similar automatic prejudicial responses. why?
Unwanted thoughts and feelings often persist.
An _____center in the brain becomes more active when a person sees the face of a person of another race
When motivation to inhibit prejudice is internal/external, it can be inhibited.
Stereotyped beliefs and prejudiced attitudes exist not only because of socialization and because they allow people to misplace hostilities, but also as _____
by-products of normal thinking processes.
Stereotypes often offer a beneficial ratio of information gained to effort expended. They represent ______
We find is especially easy and efficient to rely on stereotypes when we are :(5)
Pressed for time
Too young to appreciate diversity
___ people take more time and care more about getting racial classification right.
Outgroup homogeneity effect
perception of outgroup members as more similar to one another than are ingroup members. "they are alike; we are diverse"
The greater our familiarity with a social group, the more _____
we see its diversity
The smaller and less powerful the group, the____ (2)
less we attend to them and the more we stereotype
the tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own face
people more accurately recognize people of their own age
explain own-race, own-age bias, and Outgroup homogeneity effect
When we see someone who is in our group, we pay less attention to that characteristic that makes them in our group and more to distinctive qualities
person's expectation of being victimized by prejudice or discrimination
Seeing oneself as a victim of pervasive prejudice: effects (2)
lower well-being because always worried, but also buffers individual self-esteem
Those in a numerical minority, becoming more distinctive, also may be______
numerically overestimated by the majority
often form when two noticeable events occurs and others that are not noticed are not taken into account.
two ways we get illusory correlations
co-occurrences of an unusual act by someone in an atypical group can embed illusory correlations.
Our pre-existing stereotypes can also lead us to see correlations that aren't there
The more that people assume that human traits are fixed dispositions, ____(2)
the stronger are their stereotypes and the greater their acceptance of racial inequities.
explaining away outgroup members' positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior by one's own group)
Linguistic intergroup bias
we attribute good acts to the disposition of our group and a single event of an outgroup. We attribute bad acts to isolated events in our group and dispositions of the outgroup
the tendency of people to believe that the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
Prejudgments guide our ___ and ____
Once we judge an item as belonging to a category such as a particular race or sex, our memory for it _____
later shifts toward the features we associate with that category
accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by thinking of them as "exceptions to the rule"
accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by forming a new stereotype about this subset of a group - acknowledge as part of the overall group
Two types of effects of victimization:
1. Blaming oneself
2. Blaming external causes
Being in the minority and being self-conscious about it can_____
siphon off our mental and physical stamina
a disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will be evaluated, based on a negative stereotype. Unlike self-fulfilling prophecies that hammer one's reputation into one's self-concept, stereotype threat situations have immediate effects
How does stereotype threat undermine performance? (3)
1. Stress. fMRIs show that brain activity associated with math is impaired and emotional areas more active
2. Self-monitoring. Worrying about mistakes disrupts attention
3. Suppressing unwanted thoughts and emotions- the effort to regulate thinking takes energy and disrupts working memory
People often evaluate individuals more/less positively than the groups they compose.
Given general (base-rate) information about a group and trivial but vivid information about a particular group member, ____wins out
the vivid info
When we have little else to go on, we use our _____ and they _____
stereotypes and they affect our memory more.