Pysch 150 - Chapter 6 LO 2 and LO 3

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Reinforce

- to follow a response with the stimulus that increases the frequency of the response

Operant behavior

- voluntary responses that are reinforced

Operant conditioning

- a simple form of learning in which an organism learns to engage in behavior because it is reinforced

Positive reinforcer

- a reinforcer that when presented increases the frequency of an operant

Negative reinforcer

- a reinforcer that when we moved increases the frequency of an operant

Primary reinforcer

- an unlearned reinforcer

Secondary reinforcer

- a stimulus that gains reinforcement value through association with established reinforcers

Conditioned reinforcer

- another term for secondary reinforcer

Reward

- a pleasant stimulus that increases the frequency of the behavior it follows

Punishment

- an unpleasant stimulus that suppresses the behavior it follows

Discriminative stimulus

- in operant and conditioning, a stimulus that indicates that reinforcement is available

Continuous reinforcement

- a schedule of reinforcement in which every correct response is reinforced

Partial reinforcement

- one of several reinforcement schedules in which not every correct response is reinforced

Fixed - interval schedule

- a scheduling which a fixed amount of time must lapse between the previous and subsequent times that reinforcement is available

Variable - interval schedule

- a scheduling which a variable amount of time must lapse between the previous and subsequent times that reinforcement is available

Fixed - ratio schedule

- a scheduling which reinforcement is provided after a fixed number of correct responses

Variable - ratio schedule

- a scheduling which reinforcement is provided after a variable number of correct responses

Shaping

- a procedure for teaching complex behaviors that first reinforces approximations of the target behavior

Successive approximations

- behaviors that are progressively closer to a target behavior

Latent

- hidden or concealed

Contingency theory

- the view that learning occurs when stimuli provides information about the likelihood of the occurrence of other stimuli

Observational learning

- the acquisition of knowledge and skills strew the observation of others (who are called models) rather than by direct experience

Model

- an organism that engages in a response that is then imitated by another organism

Through classical conditioning we learn to associate stimuli. What is the results.

Result - simple, usually passive, response made to one stimulus is then made in response to another

Is Classical conditioning the only lind of learning?

Classical conditioning is one kind of learning. Another kind of learning is operant conditioning

Operant conditioning

-learn to do things - or not do things - because of the consequences of their behavior

What does classical conditioning focus on?

Classical condition focuses on how organism form expectations about their environment where operant conditioning focuses on what they do about them.

What was Skinner's "Project Pigeon"?

Skinner's wartime effort was "Project Pigeon" - pigeons would pack at targets projected onto a screen. Once trained, the pigeons would be placed in a missile. Their pecking at similar targets displayed on the screen would correct the missiles flight path, resulting in a "hit" and a sacrifice pigeon.

Was the "Project Pigeon" successful?

Project Pigeon was scrapped - equipment was too bulky and Skinner's suggestions were not taken seriously

In operant conditioning what the organism learn s to do something because..

of the effects or consequences of the behavior

What is operant conditoning?

Operant behavior, behavior that operates on, or manipulates, the environment

Picking at a target, pressing her level, or skills required to playing tennis are examples of what type of conditioning?

Operant conditioning

Helping people combat depression, one psychiatrist might focus on their "feelings". What would Skinnerian focus on?

They would focus on the type of thing that "depressed people" do.

To study operant behavior, Skinner devised a cage. What is it called?

an animal cage (or "operant chamber") = the Skinner box

Why was the cage ideal?

The cage is ideal for laboratory experimentation because experimental conditions can be carefully introduced, removed, and their effects on laboratory animals observed.

TRUE OR FALSE - In operant conditioning, it matters little why or how the first "correct" result is made.

TRUE

TRUE OR FALSE - People are visually guided into desired responses when learning new tasks?

FALSE - People can be verbally guided into desired responses when they are learning tasks such as spelling, adding numbers, or operating a machine; they need to be informed when they have made the correct response. Knowledge of results often is all the reinforcement people need to learn new skills

A reinforcer is any stimulus that increases the probability that responses preceding it will be repeated. What are examples of reinforcers?

Reinforcers include food pellets, water, the opportunity to meet, and the sound of a tone that has been previously associated with eating.

Who distinguished between positive and negative reinforcers?

B. F. Skinner

What do positive reinforcer increase?

Positive reinforcers increase the probability that a behavior will occur when they are applied

What are some examples of positive reinforcers.

Food and approval

What do negative reinforcers increase?

Negative Reinforcers increase the probability that the behavior will occur when the reinforcers are removed.

What is an example of a negative reinforcer.

Fear

TRUE OR FALSE - Delayed reinforcers are more effective that immediate reinforcers.

FALSE - Immediate reinforcers are more effective than delayed reinforcers

TRUE OR FALSE - Does short term consequences of behavior provide less of an incentive than long-term consequences?

FALSE - Short term consequences of behavior often PROVIDES MORE of an incentive than the long-term consequences

Why is it so difficult to quit smoking (from the stand point of reinforcement)?

It is difficult to quit smoking cigarettes because the reinforcement of nicotine is immediate and the health concerns of smoking more distant.

Why are positive reinforcers effective?

Primary reinforcers are effective because of the organism's BIOLOGICAL MAKEUP(food, water, warmth (positive reinforcers) and pain (negative reinforcer) all serve as primary reinforcers

Secondary reinforcers are son referred to as ..

conditioned reinforcers. Secondary reinforcers acquired their value for being associated with established reinforcers.

Do reinforcers strengthen or weaken responses?

Reinforcers are used to strengthen responses

In operant conditioning, the reassuring events are what?

reinforcers

The extinction of learned responses results from what?

...the repeated performance of operant behavior without reinforcement.

Reinforcers maintain operant behavioral or strengthen habitual behavior in what type of conditioning?

operant conditioning

Spontaneous recovery of learned responses occurs in what two types of conditioning?

operant condition as well as in classical conditioning.

What are reinforcers?

Reinforcers are stimuli that increases the frequency of behavior.

Reinforcers are known by their effects. Rewards and punishments are known by what?

by how they feel.

Why did B. F. Skinner prefer the concept of reinforcement to that of the reward?

Skinner preferred the concept of reinforcement to that of the reward because reinforcement does not suggest trying to "get inside the head" of an organism to guess what it would find pleasant or unpleasant.

How is a list of reinforcers arrived at or complied?

A list of reinforcers are arrived at by observing what sort of stimuli increases the frequency of behavior

Fill in the blanks - Punishment suppress ___(1)_______ and may be in ______(2)_______.

(1) undesirable behavior
(2) "emergencies"

TRUE OR FALSE - Behaviors that are not reinforced tend to be distinguished

True

In what type of conditioning are some responses maintained by means of continuous reinforcement?

Operant conditioning.

Behavior can also be maintained by the means...

of partial reinforcement.

Partial reinforcement schedules can maintain what behavior for a great deal of time, even though it goes unreinforced.

Gambling

TRUE OR FALSE - Responses that have been maintained by partial reinforcement are more resistant to extinction their responses that have been maintained by continual reinforcement.

True

The cognitive perspective suggests that organisms that experience partial reinforcement do not what?

do not expect reinforcement every time they engage in a response.

Four basic reinforcement schedules:

1. Fixed - interval reinforcement schedule
2. Variable - interval reinforcement schedule
3. Fixed - ratio reinforcement schedule
4. Variable - ratio reinforcement schedule

Resulting record shows a typical series of upward waves, or scallops. What are they called ?

Fixed - interval scallops

What type of reinforcement schedule do car dealers use?

Fixed - interval reinforcement schedule.

What two schedules maintain a high response rate?

Fixed-and variable ratio schedules

What is the difference between variable-interval schedule and variable ratio schedule?

With a variable - interval reinforcement schedule, reinforcement is more unpredictable; whereas a variable - ratio reinforcement schedule, the reinforcement is provided after a variable number of correct responses have been made.

What is fixed - interval schedule?

Fixed - interval schedule is a fixed amount of time must elapse before the correct response will result in a reinforcer.

TRUE OR FALSE - According to your book, can we learn simple behaviors by shaping?

FALSE - We learn complex behaviors by shaping.

What does a organism learn with a fixed-ratio schedule?

With a fixed-ratio schedule, it is as if the organism learns that it must make several responses before being reinforced. It then "gets them out of the way" as rapidly as possible.

As training progresses in Shaping, we come to expect what?

expect more before we are willing to provide reinforcement. We reinforce successive approximations of the goal.

SCENERIO - You are driving your car home and not recalling how you got there. It is like the entire trip may seem "lost". What is this an example of?

Shaping. Your responses may have become so habitual that you do not focus on them.

Give two example of who induces children to acquire so - called gender - appropriate behavior patterns through rewards and punishments.

Parents and peers. Parents praise children for sharing their toys and punish them for being too aggressive. Peers participate in socializing process by playing the children were generous and avoiding aggressive ones.

What type of conditioning plays a role and attitude formation.

Operant conditioning

Biofeedback training (BFT) are based on principles of what type of conditioning?

Operant conditioning

BFT has enabled people and lower animals to do?

learn to control autonomic responses to attain reinforcement.

When people receive BFT, reinforcement is given in what form?

In the form of information

Why is behavior modification used?

To reverse response patterns

B F Skinner developed an educational method called what?

programmed learning that is based on operant conditioning.

What method assumes that any complex task involving conceptual learning as well as motor skills can be broken down into numbers of small steps?

Programmed Learning

Steps shaped individually and then combined in a sequence to form a what?

Correct behavioral chain.

TRUE OR FALSE - In programmed learning, errors are punished?

Program learning does not punish errors. Instead, correct responses are reinforced.

What two types of conditioning were originally conceived as relatively simple forms of learning?

Classical and operative conditionings

Conditionings appeal in that it can be said to

meet the behaviorist objective of explaining behavior in terms of observable events

Some psychiatrists have suggested that most complicated human behavior involve what?

...involves the summation of a series of instances of conditioning.

In the addition to concepts such as Association and reinforcement, what other concepts do cognitive psychologist use? .

Mental structures, schemas, templates, and information processing

FILL IN THE BLANKS - Cognitive psychologist see people as ___(1)___ for information, ___(2)___ evidence, and ___(3)___ decisions

1. Searching
2. Leaving
3. Making

TRUE OR FALSE - Cognitive factors is only limited to humans?

False - Cognitive factors are not necessarily limited to humans but we are the only species that can talk about them

TRUE OR FALSE - Many behaviorists argued that organisms acquire only responses for which they are enforced.

True

What did E.C. Tolman showed with his rats.

Tolman's rats have learned about the means by exploring them even when they weren't unrewarded by food.

FILL IN THE BLANK - The rats learn the fastest routes by exploring. This learning may remain __(1)___ until food motivated them to take the rapid routes.

1. hidden or latent

What did E.C. Tolman distinguished between?

He distinguished between learning and performance.

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