Ch. 13-14 Middle Ages

Created by kaitlynsamuels2014 

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231 terms

Middle Ages

Period in European history from the fall of Rome until the Renaissance (500-1500)

Germanic Peoples

tribes from Scandinavia who settled in Western Europe

Pope Gregory I

Pope (c.590) who used the revenues of the Roman Church to raise armies, repair roads, and send missionaries to the French and English

Sippe

a group within a Germanic trive which claimed a common ancestor

Comitatus

a war band who fought for a Germanic king

Comites or Counts

companions of a Germanic king who fought for him and shared his food

oath

Swearing personal loyalty to a political or military leader

villeins

"tillers" who worked the land in return for protection. Some were free, some not

swearing worth

it defined the social, political and military position of a person. The more important the person, the higher this was

weirgild

"man Gold" Payment to a man's family and lord if accidentally killed or injured

ordeal

form of trial by water or fire in which God decided guilt

stirrup

essential peice of equipment that made the knight on horseback effective

Franks

Germanic tribe that settled in Gaul (france) and Switzerland

Battle of Chalons (Catalunian Fields)

Franks, Burgundians, and the Romans defeated the Huns (451)

Clovis

Frankish king who ruled North-Central France by 486

Clotild

wife of Clovis who urged him to become a Christian

Bishop Remigius

he baptised Clovis and his warriors in 496

Merovingian Kings

royal family of Clovis, weak rulers

Mayor of the Palace

royal official who ruled for the weak Merovingian kings

Charles Martel "The Hammer"

Mayor of the Palace who united the Franks (714-718)

Battle of Tours (Politiers) October 10, 732

Charles Martel defeated a Muslim invasion of France

Pepin the Short

Mayor of the Palace who was elected king of the Franks by an assemble of nobles

Stephen II

pope who annointed Pepin King of the Franks (754)

Childeric III

Last Merovingian king, sent to a monastery by Pepin the Short

Donation of Pepin

forged document which claimed to give all of Italy to the Pope to rule

Charlemagne

Charles the Great, united Frankland and worked to Christianize Europe

progress

a yearly tour by Charlemagne of all his possessions

marks

border provinces given to loyal counts who had extra troops and responsibilities

counties

300 local divisions of Frankland, ruled by the counts

misi dominici

"messengers of the Lord", they carried Charlemagne's orders to the counts and the stewards

Saxons

Barbarian tribe in north Germany with which Charlemagne fought a 30 year guerilla war to froce their conversion to Christianity

Alcuin of York

British scholar who set up Charlemagne's palace school

Carolingian Miniscule Script

form of writing developed by Carolingian scholars

Pope Leo III

crowned Charlemagne Emperor of the West on December 25, 800

Aachen

capital of Charlemagne's empire

Monasteries

religious communities where men gave up their possessions and followed rules to serve God

Convents

religious communities where women gave up their possessions and followed rules to serve God

St. Benedict

Monk who wrote the rules for the monasteries

St. Scholastica

Sister of St. Benedict, she became the first nun of the Benedictine order

Treaty of Verdun (843)

divided the lands ruled by Charlemagne among the three of his grandsons

Charles the Bald

Grandson of Charlemagne who inherited the West Saxon kingdom

Louis the German

grandson of Charlemagne who inherited the East Saxon kingdom

lothar

grandson of Charlemagne who inherited the Middle Kingdom and became Holy Roman Emperor

Saracens

Muslim raiders and invaders who struck Europe through Italy and Spain (c. 600-1060)

Magyars

horse riding nomads who swept through eastern and western Europe until 950s

Otto I

German king who stopped the Magyar invasions of Europe at the Battle of Lechfeld in August. 955

vikings

Norsemen (northmen) who sailed from Scandinavia and raided western Europe (775-1050s)

Halberd

broad war ax introduced to western Europe by the Vikings

Hauberk

Chain mail armour

longship

a viking clinger-built ship

the siege of Europe

period from 800-1050 during which Europe was attacked and invaded by the Saracens, Magyars, and Vikings

Feudalism

system of governing and landholding that emerged in Europe between 850 and 950

lord

local landowner granted land from a superior

fief

the land granted to a lord

vassal

a mounted horseman who provided fighting service for a lord

knights

mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lord's land in exchange for fiefs

manorialism

the economic system which provided food and protection for people in the early medieval period

serf

people who were bound to the land on which they lived and farmed

demesne

land owned by the lord and worked by the serfs. the produce went to feed the lord, his family, and his vassals

common fields

lands worked by the serfs. The produce was used to pay the taxes and feed the serfs

crofts

gardens that belonged to the peasants

manor

the farm or estate on which the lord, his vassals, and his serfs lived

common pasture

common area for grazing animals

tithe

churhc tax of 1/10 of the income paid by the serfs and free peasants

chivalry

complex code of conduct bu which knights were expected to obey

page

a noble boy of 7-12 years old, learning to become a knight

squire

a noble boy 13-20 years old, learning to become a knight by serving a knight

dubbing

a ceremony at which a young man was made a knight

tournaments

mock battles in which knights fought each other individually or in groups to win large ransoms from defeated knights

sieges

type of warfare in which a castle was surrounded and attacked until it surrendered

mangonel

device that used twisted rope to hurl objects at a castle

trebuchet

device that used a counter-weight to hurl objects toward a castle

song of roland

a medieval epic poem about a group of French knights serving Charlemagne

troubadours

travelling poet-musicians who composed verses and songs about courtly behavior and love

Eleanor of Aquitaine

duchess who was queen of France and later queen of England. Her court was famed for its "courtly love" poetry

Gelasius I

Pope (492-496), he established that the 2 powers of the church and state should be equal, but independent in their own spheres of operation

clergy

a body of officials who perform religious services

regular clergy

Church officials who obey a rule (code): monks or nuns

secular clergy

Church officials who work with lay members: archbishops, bishops, and priests

sacraments

one of 7 ceremonies in which God's grace is transmitted to the people

canon law

the body of laws governing the religious practices of a Christian church

Otto (I) the Great

King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor. He strengthened the powers of the bishops and abbots in Germany in order to weaken the power of the nobles and helped strengthen the power of the papacy

Holy Roman Empire

an empire established in Europe in the 10th century, consisting mainly of lands in what is now Germany and Italy

lay investiture

the appointment if religious officials by kings or nobles

Gregory VII

Pope (1073-1085) who banned lay investiture in 1075

Henry IV

Holy Roman Emperor who supported lay investiture and was twice excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII

Canossa

Italian town were Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV did penance in 1077, standing three days bare-headed in the snow, in order to reverse his excommunication by Pope Gregory VII

Concordat of Worms

compromise in 1122 by which the Church alone could appoint a bishop, but the emperor could veto the appointment

Frederick (I) "Barbararossa"

Holy Roman Emperor (1155-1190). Dominated the German princes and 6 times invaded Italy to control the northern Italian cities

Battle of Leganto

Vistory by an Italian army of mostly foot soldiers over the mounted knights of Frederick I in 1177

Frederick II

Holy Roman Emperor (1220-1250), tried to revive the empire of Charlemagne and was frequently at war with the papal states. Was twice excommunicated by the Pope.

Pluralism

problem in the medieval Church caused by officials having more than one office

simony

problem in the Church caused by positions being sold in the Church

lay investiture

problem in the medieval Church caused by kings and bishops appointing bishops

Pope Leo IX

Pope (1049-1054) who started the reform movement in the medieval Church

Curia

the clerks and advisers to the pope who served as the bureaucracy of the Church

tithe

tax of 10% of the yearly income of every Christian family, paid to the Church

friars

Churchmen who took vows but lived in the world by begging and preaching

Dominicans

a Catholic religious order founded by Saint Dominic in the early 13th century in France, famed as scholars and teachers

Franciscans

Members of Catholic religious orders that follow a body of regulations known as "The Rule of St. Francis", famed as missionaries and preachers

Romanesque

early medieval architecture style characterized by round arches and barrel vaults

Gothic

High and Late medieval architecture style characterized by pointed arches, flying buttresses, and ribbed vaults

Tympanum

the "story panel" above the door of a medieval church, often about the Last Judgement

Alexius Comnenus I

Byzantine emperor from 1081-1118 whose request for help against the Muslims atarted the Crusades

Urban II

Pope (1088-1099) who started the Crusades by his preaching to the Council of Clermont in 1095

Crusade

one of several "holy wars" to gain control of the "Holy Land" (1095-1291)

Frist Crusade (1096-1099)

Successfully captured Jerusalem and created the 5 "crusader states"

Second Crusade (1147-1149)

organized to recapture Edessa or to capture Damascus

Third Crusade (1189-1191)

called to recapture Jerusalem

Saladin

sultan in Egypt, he recaptured Jerusalem in 1187

Richard the Lion-hearted

King of England who led the Third Crusade and made a treaty with Saladin

Fourth Crusade (1202-1204)

Crusaders who attacked and looted Constantinople instead of invading Egypt

Children's Crusade

possibly fictitious attempts by the children of France and Germany to conquer Jerusalem

Reconquista

800 year long (710-1492) conflict of drive the Muslims out of Spain

Inquisition

Church court held to suppress heresy, especially active in Spain

three-field system

a system of farming developed in medieval Europe in which farmland was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was planted with a winter crop, a spring crop, and one field left unplanted.

fallow

the field left unplanted in the three-field system

guild

an organization of individuals in the same business or occupation working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members

merchant guilds

merchants banded together to control the number of goods being traded, to keep prices up and for security

craft guilds

artisans and craftspeople who banded together to set standards for quality, set wages and working conditions, and to create a system of ecucating new members

apprentice

a young person who was learning a trade or occupation

journeyman

a trained craftsman or merchant who worked with other owners to pretect their trade

master

a shop or business owner who worked with other owners to pretect their trade

commercial revolution

the expansion of trade and businessthat transformed European economies and changed life

fairs

great international markets held in some medieval towns during certain seasons of the year

bills of exchange

established exchange rates between different coinage systems

letters of credit

written aggreements between merchants for the deposit and delivery of large amounts of money

usury

sin of lending money to another Christian for interest

burr

teh wall that surrounded a town

burghers

those who lived within the protection of the wall

suburbs

area below or outside the protection of the town wall

charter

a letter of permission from a king given to a town allowing it to govern itself and to make its own laws

liberal arts

education for a "free man" usually a churchman

trivium

"the three roads": grammar, rhetoric, and logic

quadtrivium

"the four raods", arithmetic, geomoetry, astronaomy, and music

university

a group of scholars: teachers and students

bachelors

students who had completed the trivium

masters

students who had completed teh quadtrivium and had passed a disputation

scholasticism

method of formal debate using reason ,logic, and faith

plainsong

one-voiced music such as Gregorian Chants

troubadours or minnesingers

travelling composers and musicians

vernacular

the everyday language of a people in a country or region

fabliaux

fables or "beast tales" in which animals act as humans

Chansons ed Geste

romantic or heroic epics called "Songs of Deeds"

courtly love

stories and acts of idealized romantic conduct which allowed noble women to have some control over their lives

morality plays

plays about how life should be lived

miracle plays

plays about the lives of saints

mystery plays

plays about events from the Bible

Dante Aligheri

Italian poet (1265-1321) who wrote The Divine Comedy which describes his journy through Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise

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