Cell Processes

Created by milnerj 

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Osmosis

Diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane

Diffusion

Movement of particles from a higher concentration to a lower concentration

Hypertonic

Concentration of solutes OUTSIDE of a cell is HIGHER than the concentration of solutes inside (cell shrinks)

Hypotonic

Concentration of solutes INSIDE the cell is HIGHER than the concentration of solutes outside. (cell explodes)

Isotonic

The concentration of solutes inside and outside of the cell is the SAME. (equilibrium / stable)

Passive transport

HIGH to LOW concentration, with the concentration gradient, no ATP (energy) needed

Active transport

LOW to HIGH concentration, against the concentration gradient, requires ATP (energy)

Hydrophilic

Water loving, like the phosphate head in a phospholipid

Hydrophobic

Water fearing, like the lipid tail in a phospholipid

Exocytosis

Movement of materials out of the cell - exit (active transport)

Endocytosis

Movement of material into the cell - enter (active transport)

ATP

Adenosine Triphosphate, 1adenine and 3 phosphates

ADP

Adenosine Diphosphate, formed when ATP loses an end phosphate group

Functions of ATP

Energy for movement of muscle cells, energy for movement of cilia and flagella, active transport, and the breakdown of large molecules

Semipermeable membrane

Allows only certain molecules to pass through it

Facilitated diffusion

The use of carrier proteins for diffusion or protein channels (coin machine)

Transport

The process where molecules, food, and other substances are moved across the membrane

Cell membrane

Double layer of proteins (phospholipids) that controls what goes in and out of cell; selectively permeable

Intracellular

Inside cell

Extracellular

Outside cell

Homeostasis

Stable internal enviornment

concentration gradient

difference in concentration of a substance on two sides of a membrane

solute

substance being dissolved

vesicle

A membrane bound sac that contains materials involved in transport of the cell.

phagocytosis

cell eating solid particles

pinocytosis

cell drinking particles dissolved in water

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