a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
a national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs
economic and political system based on a single-party government ruled by a dictator
The Red Scare
The fear in the United States that a communist revolution could take place in America
people who oppose organized government
Sacco and Vanzetti
two Italian-born anarchists, unfairly tried and convicted for the armed robbery and murder of two pay-clerks in Massachusetts in 1920
an arrangement placing a limit on the number of immigrants from each country
John L. Lewis
United Mine Workers of America leader who organized the coal miners strike
Charles Evan Hughes
a distinguished secretary of state under Harding, and became a Supreme Court Justice and later the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
Warren G. Harding
29th U.S. President. 1921-1923 (Died of natural causes). Republican, president after World War I who promised to return the US to normalism
This tariff rose the rates on imported goods in the hopes that domestic manufacturing would prosper. This prevented foreign trade, which hampered the economy since Europe could not pay its debts if it could not trade.
Harding's "advisors" who played poker, drank, and smoked with him in the White House, involved in scandals that gave Harding a bad name.
Teapot Dome Scandal
symbol of government corruption; government oil reserves were secretly leased to oil companies in exchange for financial compensation
Albert B. Fall
part of the Teapot Dome Scandal- leased the land to two private oil companies
Became president when Harding died. Tried to clean up scandals. Business prospered and people's wealth increased
The process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land.
A payment plan that allows customers to make payments at set intervals over a period of time until the total debt is paid
a law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages
Secret bars where alcohol could be purchased illegally
Smugglers of illegal alcohol during the Prohibition era
United States gangster who terrorized Chicago during Prohibition until arrested for tax evasion (1899-1947)
Conservative beliefs in the Bible and that it should be literally believed and applied
Defended John Scopes during the Scopes Trial. He argued that evolution should be taught in schools.
a highly publicized trial in 1925 when John Thomas Scopes violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school
a young woman in the 1920s who flaunted her unconventional conduct and dress
a set of principles granting greater sexual freedom to men than to women
Charles A. Lindbergh
He was the first person to fly to Paris France a trans Atlantic flight. He flew around the Eiffel tower and arrived in Paris.
United States composer who incorporated jazz into classical forms and composed scores for musical comedies (1898-1937)
American artist that painted flowers and landscapes during the great depression.
F Scott Fitzgerald
writer of "This Side of Paradise" and "The Great Gatsby" who coined the term "Jazz Age"
an American writer of fiction who won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954 (1899-1961)
The Harlem Renaissance
the flourishing of African-American literature and art in the 1920's, mostly in urban centers across America. Prominent figures: Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, W.E.B. DuBois
James Weldon Johnson
poet, lawyer, and NAACP executive secretary
founder of United Negro Improvement Association `
A poet who was a major figure in the Harlem Renaissance movement and wrote the poem "If We Must Die" after the Chicago riot of 1919.
African American poet who described the rich culture of African American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music. He wrote of African American hope and defiance, as well as the culture of Harlem and also had a major impact on the Harlem Renaissance.
Born in Chicago middle class. moved to Harlem in 1923 and began playing at the cotton club. Composer, pianist and band leader. Most influential figures in jazz.
Government guaranteed to pay farmers a minimum price for certain farm products. These prices were artificially high.
money available for a client to borrow
Alfred E. Smith
Governor of New York who ran as a Democrat for the 1928 elections
Dow Jones Industrial Average
a measure of stock market prices based on thirty leading companies of the new york stock exchange and nasdaq
buying stock and bonds on the chance of a quick profit
buying on margin
paying a small percentage of a stock's price as a down payment and borrowing the rest
October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed.
the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s
Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act
a law, enacted in 1930, that established the highest protective tariff in U.S. history, worsening the depression in America and abroad.
communities of homeless people who live on the outskirts of towns.
places where the hungry could get a free meal
a queue of people waiting for free food
western Kansas and Oklahoma, northern Texas, and eastern Colorado and New Mexico; long periods of drought and destructive farming methods ruined farming in the region
cash payments or food provided by the government to the poor
Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.
Hoover Dam in Arizona, built to create jobs and provide electric
Federal Home Loan Act
lowered mortgage rates for homeowners and allowed farmers to refinance their farm loans and avoid foreclosure
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Congress set up $2 billion. It made loans to major economic institutions such as banks, insurance companies and railroads.
WWI veterans who marched on Washington demanding their $1,000 bonus pay before the 1945 due date.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
President 1933-45, took us out of the depression and into WWII, the new deal
Franklin Roosevelt's economic reform program designed to solve the problems of the Great Depression
established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and included banking reforms, some of which were designed to control speculation
Federal Securities Act
required corporations to provide complete information on all stock offerings and made them liable for any misrepresentations
Agricultural Adjustment Act
Restricted production during the New Deal by paying farmers to reduce crop area.
Civilian Conservation Corps
New Deal program that hired unemployed men to work on natural conservation projects
National Industrial Recovery Act
A New Deal legislation that focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics. Pumped cash into the economy to stimulate the job market and created codes that businesses were to follow to maintain the ideal of fair competition and created the NRA.
government practice of spending more than it takes in from taxes
Louisiana Senator who opposed FDR's New Deal and came up with a , "Share the Wealth" wants to give $5k to all families ,was later assassinated
wife of Franklin Roosevelt and a strong advocate of human rights (1884-1962)
Works Progress Administration
New Deal agency that helped create jobs for those that needed them. It created around 9 million jobs working on bridges, roads, and buildings.
National Youth Administration
(NYA) provided education jobs counseling and recreation for young people. part time positions at schools for students allowed for aid in h.s. college and grad school. part time jobs for drop outs
1935, also National Labor Relations Act; granted rights to unions; allowed collective bargaining
Social Security Act
created a tax on workers and employers. That money provided monthly pensions for retired people.
U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet.
Mary McLeod Bethune
United States educator who worked to improve race relations and educational opportunities for Black Americans (1875-1955)
social worker who observed the poor living conditions of the American Indian communities
New Deal coalition
Alliance of southern conservatives, religious, and ethnic minorities who supported the Democratic Party for 40 years
Congress of Industrial Organization
a federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955
Actor, director, producer, and writer who created The War of the Worlds
U.S. painter noted for works based on life in the midwest (1892-1942); his most famous painting is American Gothic.
wrote Native Son that depicted black urban life
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
a federally sponsored corporation that insures accounts in national banks and other qualified institutions
Securities and exchange commission
regulate banking and investment activities
National Labor Relations Board
an independent agency of the United States government charged with mediating disputes between management and labor unions
price intended to keep farmers' income steady
Tennessee Valley Authority
A New Deal agency created to generate electric power and control floods in a seven-U.S.-state region around the Tennessee River Valley . It created many dams that provided electricity as well as jobs.