Durkheim's term for the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective.
Anomie Theory of Deviance
Merton's theory of deviance as an adaptation of socially prescribed goals or of the means governing their attainment, or both.
The act of going along with peers-individuals of our own status who have no special right to direct our behavior.
A view of conformity and deviance that suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to systematically conform to society norms.
A violation of criminal law for which some governmental authority applies formal penalties.
A school of criminology that argues that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions.
Behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.
A theory of deviance that holds that violation of rules results from exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts.
Differences in the way social control is exercised over different groups.
Formal Social Control
Social control that is carried out by authorized agents, such as police officers, judges, school administrators, and employers.
The eight types of crime reported annually by the FBI in the Uniform Crime Reports: murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson.
Informal Social Control
Social control that is carried out casually by ordinary people through such means as laughter, smiles, and ridicule.
An approach to deviance that attempts to explain why certain people are viewed as deviants while others engaged in the same behavior are not.
Government social control
Compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure.
The work of a group that regulates relations among criminal enterprises involved in illegal activities, including prostitution, gambling, and the smuggling and sale of illegal drugs.
A penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm.
The techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society.
Social Disorganization Theory
The theory that attributes increase in crime and deviance to the absence or breakdown of commercial relationships and social institutions, such as the family, school, church, and local government.
Another name for labeling theory.
A label used to devalue members of certain social groups.
Crime that occurs across multiple national boarders.
A questionnaire or interview established in 1972 was given to a sample of the population to determine whether people have been victims of crime.
A term used by sociologists to describe the willing exchange among adults of widely desired, but illegal, goods and services.
Illegal acts committed by affluent, "respectable" individuals in the course of business activites.
Coined the term, stigma to describe the labels society uses to devalue the members of certain social groups.
Argued that there is nothing inherently deviant or criminal in any act, the key is how sociology responds to the act.
His anomie theory of deviance posits five basic forms of adaptation but does not fully account for patterns of deviance and crime.
Believed the criminal justice system serves the interests of the powerful, who desire deviance to suit their own needs.