AP World Chapter 10-12 Key Terms

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Middle Ages (also called "Medieval")

The period in western European history between the fall of the Roman Empire and the 15th century.

Gothic

An architectural style developed during the Middle Ages in western Europe; featured pointed arches and flying buttresses as external supports.

Vikings

Seagoing Scandinavian raiders who disrupted coastal areas of Europe from the 8th to 11th centuries; pushed across the Atlantic to Iceland, Greenland, and North America

Manorialism

System of economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; involved a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor for access to land

Serfs

Peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system

Moldboard

Heavy plow introduced in northern Europe during the Middle Ages; permitted deeper cultivation of heavier soils.

Three-field system

1/3 of the land left unplanted each year to increase fertility

Clovis

King of the Franks; converted to Christianity circa 496

Carolingians

Royal house of the Franks from the 8th to the 10th centuries

Charles Martel

Carolingian monarch of the Franks; defeated Muslims at Tours in 732

Charlemagne

Carolingian monarch who established a large empire in France and Germany circa 800. (grandson of Charles Martel)

Holy Roman emperors

Rulers in northern Italy and Germany following the breakup of Charlemagne's empire; claimed title of emperor but failed to develop centralized monarchy.

Feudalism

Relationships among the military elite during the Middle Ages; greater lords provided protection to lesser lords in return for military service.

Vassals

Members of the military elite who received land from a lord in return for military service and loyalty.

Capetians

French dynasty ruling from the 10th century; developed a strong feudal monarchy.

William the Conqueror

Invaded England from Normandy (France) in 1066; established tight feudal system and centralized monarchy in England. Impact of his invasion was the transformation of English language to one having a strong Latin base

Magna Carta

Great Charter issued by King John of England in 1215; confirmed feudal rights against monarchical claims; limited the power of English kings.

Parliaments

Bodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized the feudal principle that a ruler should consult their vassals

Hundred Years War

Conflict between England and France (1337-1453). France wins; Joan of Arc a major figure in the victory

Pope Urban II

Called First Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim control

St. Clare of Assisi

13th-century founder of a women's monastic order; represented a new spirit of purity and dedication to the Catholic church

Gregory VII

11th-century pope who attempted to free the Catholic church from interference of feudal lords; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over the practice of lay investiture of bishops.

Peter Abelard

Author of Yes and No; a university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology; demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine

St. Bernard of Clairvaux

Emphasized role of faith in preference to logic; stressed importance of mystical union with God; successfully challenged Abelard and had him driven from the universities.

Thomas Aquinas

Creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning; taught at University of Paris; author of Summas; believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and the nature of God. (compare him to the Muslim al-Ghazali)

Scholasticism

Dominant medieval philosophical approach, so called because of its base in the schools or universities; based on the use of logic to resolve theological problems.

Troubadours

Poets in 14th-century southern France; gave a new value to the emotion of love in the Western tradition

Hanseatic League

An organization of north German and Scandinavian cities for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance

Guilds

Associations of workers in the same occupation in a single city; stressed security and mutual control; limited membership, regulated apprenticeship, guaranteed good workmanship, discouraged innovations; often established franchise within cities.

Black Death

Plague that struck Europe in the 14th century; significantly reduced Europe's population; affected social structure. (thought to have been Bubonic Plague)

Roman Catholic church

Church established in western Europe during the Roman Empire and the Middle Ages with its head being the bishop of Rome or pope

Pope

Meaning papa or father; bishop of Rome and head of Catholic church.

Franks

One of the principal tribes of the Germanic peoples; settled in area of France during the folk migrations of the 4th and 5th centuries

Benedict of Nursia

(480 - 550) Italian abbot who founded the monastery at Monte Cassino and the Benedictine order based on his teachings.

Three estates

The three social groups considered most powerful in Western countries; church, nobles, and urban leaders.

Ferdinand and Isabella

King ______ of Aragon and Queen ______ of Castile married in 1469 to bring the kingdoms of Spain together to complete the reconquest of Spain from the Muslims.

First Crusade

(1096 - 1099) Crusade called by Pope Urban II which captured Jerusalem. (only militarily successful Crusade)

Third Crusade

(1189 - 1192) Crusade led by King Richard the Lionhearted to recapture the city of Jerusalem from Islamic forces led by Saladin; failed in attempt

Fourth Crusade

(1202 - 1204) Crusade which by a strange series of events attacked and sacked Constantinople, causing damage to Byzantine Empire

Francis of Assisi

(1181 - 1226) Son of wealthy merchant; he renounced his wealth and chose a harsh life of poverty; later founded the Holy Order of _________

Investiture

A formal conferring of power to clergy usually with robes or other Christian symbols.

Augustine of Hippo

(354 - 430) Bishop of Hippo who wrote Confessions and City of God, which formed the basis for the doctrine of man's salvation by divine grace for the church.

Roger Bacon

(1214 - 1292) English philosopher and scientist who withdrew from medieval scholasticism and focused on experimental science; influenced later thinkers of the Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution.

Geoffrey Chaucer

English author who wrote The Canterbury Tales, a literary masterpiece written in the vernacular in which pilgrims were going to worship at the shrine of Thomas Becket at Canterbury.

Romanesque

Architectural style which was an adaptation of the Roman basilica and barrel arch form.

Beowulf

Anglo-Saxon epic poem dated to the 8th century which details Anglo-Saxon society through the adventures of the hero _______.

Romance of the Rose

Poem written by Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meung during the 13th century; details the ideas of courtly love

Chivalry

Medieval code used by knights which included the ideals of courage, honor, and the protection of the weak

Indian

Misnomer created by Columbus when referring to indigenous American peoples; implies social and ethnic commonalty that did not exist among Native Americans; still used to describe Native Americans

Toltecs

Nomadic peoples from beyond the northern frontier of sedentary agriculture in Mesoamerica; established capital at Tula after migration into central Mesoamerican plateau; strongly militaristic ethic, including cult of human sacrifice.

Aztecs

The Mexica; one of the nomadic tribes that penetrated into the sedentary zone of the Mesoamerican plateau after the fall of the Toltecs; established empire after 1325 around shores of Lake Texcoco.

Tenochtitlan

Founded circa 1325 on a marshy island in Lake Texcoco; became center of Aztec power.

Huitzilopochtli

Aztec tribal patron god; central figure of human sacrifice and warfare; identified with old sun god

Chinampas

Beds of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rootedin lakes to create "floating islands"; system of irrigated agriculture used by Aztecs.

Pochteca

Merchant class in Aztec society; specialized in long-distance trade in luxury items.

Inca socialism

An interpretation describing Inca society as a type of utopia; image of the Inca Empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole.

Inca

Group of clans (ayllu) centered at Cuzco; created an empire in the Andes during the 15thcentury; also title of the ruler

Split inheritance

Inca practice of ruler descent; all titles and political power went to the successor, but wealth and land remained in the hands of male descendants for support of dead Inca's mummy.

Temple of the Sun

Inca religious center at Cuzco; center of state religion; held mummies of past Incas.

Tambos

Way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies; relay points for system of runners used to carry messages.

Mita

Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities wereexpected to contribute; an essential part of Inca control.

Quipu

System of knotted strings used by the Incas in place of a writing system; could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records

Hernan Cortés

(1485 - 1547) Led expedition of 600 Spanish soldiers to coast of Mexico in1519; conquistador responsible for defeat of Aztec Empire; captured Tenochtitlan.

Anasazi

Native American culture which thrived in the Southwest from 200 to 1200 C.E.;known for cliff dwellings and maize growing

Hopewell

Native American culture which centered in the Ohio valley from 200 to 500 C.E.; known for earthen burial and defensive mounds

"Flowery death"

Death while taking prisoners for the sacrificial knife

Period of the Five Dynasties

Era of continuous warfare (220-589) among the many kingdoms that followed the fall of the Han.

Wendi

Member of prominent northern Chinese family during the Period of the Six Dynasties; with support from northern nomadic peoples established Sui dynasty in 589.

Yangdi

Second Sui ruler; restored Confucian examination system; constructed canal system; assassinated in 618

Li Yuan

Duke of Tang; minister for Yangdi; took over empire after assassination of Yangdi; first Tang ruler

Ministry of Public Rites

Administered the examinations for state office during the Tang dynasty.

Jinshi

Title given students who passed the most difficult examinations; became eligible for high office.

Chan Buddhism

Called Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular among the elite

Mahayana (Pure Land) Buddhism

Emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism; popular among the masses.

Wuzong

Tang emperor (841-847); persecuted Buddhist monasteries and reduced influence of Buddhism in favor of Confucianism

Yang Guifei

Royal concubine of Tang emperor Xuanzong; introduction of relatives into administration led to revolt.

Khitan nomads

Founded Liao dynasty of Manchuria in 907; remained a threat to Song; very much influenced by Chinese culture.

Zhu Xi

Most prominent neo-Confucian scholar during the Song dynasty; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life

Southern Song

Smaller surviving dynasty (1127-1279); presided over one of the greatest cultural reigns in world history

Jurchens

Founders of Qin kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of the Yellow River basin and forced the Song to flee south.

Grand Canal

Canal system begun by Yangdi; joined the Yellow River region to the Yangzi basin.

Junks

Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, stern-post rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula.

Flying money

Chinese credit instrument that provided vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of a venture; reduced danger of robbery; an early form of currency

Changan

Capital of Tang dynasty; population of 2 million; larger than any contemporary world city. (modern day Xian—home of terra cotta warriors)

Huangzhou

Capital of later Song; location near East China Sea permitted international commerce; population of more than 1,500,000. (south of Shanghai)

Foot binding

Male-imposed practice to mutilate women's feet in order to reduce size; produced pain and restricted movement; helped to confine women to the household

Bi Sheng

11th-century artisan; devised technique of printing with movable type; made it possible for China to be the most literate civilization of its time.

Li Bo

Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world withphilosophical musings.

Empress Wu

(690 - 705 C.E.) Tang ruler who supported Buddhist establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created.

Xuanzong

Leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty who reigned from 713 to 755, though he encouraged overexpansion.

Sinfication

Extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions; typical of Korea and Japan, less typical of Vietnam.

Neo-Confucians

Revived ancient Confucian teachings in Song era of China; great impact on the dynasties that followed; their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences.

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