Psychology Chapter 6: Memory

24 terms by naomizh 

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memory

the ability to store and retrieve information over time

encoding

the process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory

storage

the process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored

elaborative encoding

the process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory.

visual imagery encoding

the process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures

organizational encoding

the process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items

sensory memory

a type of storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less

iconic memory

a fast-decaying store of visual information

echoic memory

a fast-decaying store of auditory information

short-term memory

a type of storage that holds nonsensory information for more than a few seconds bu less than a minure

rehearsal

the process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it

chunking

combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memory

working memory

active maintenance of information in short-term storage

long-term memory

a type of storage that holds information for hours, days, weeks, or years

semantic judgments

act of elaborative encoding: judgments that require participants to think about the meaning of the word (ex. is hat a type of clothing?) (offers much better memory for words)

rhyme judgments

act of elaborative encoding: judgments that require participants to think about the sound of a word (does hat rhyme with cat?)

visual judgments

act of elaborative encoding: judgments that require participants to think about the appearance of the words (is HAT written in uppercase or lowercase?)

True

True or False: Imagery encoding can substantially improve memory

survival encoding condition

participants asked to imagine they were stranded in the grasslands of a foreign land, condition where participants remembered more words than moving or pleasantness tasks

hippocampal region

the region that acts as a kind of "index" that links together all of these otherwise separate bits and pieces so that we remember them as one memory

anterograde amnesia

the inability to transfer new information from the short-term store to the long-term store

retrograde amnesia

the inability to retrieve information hat was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an injury or operation

consolidation

the process by which memories become stable in the brain

reconsolidation

memories can become vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled, requiring them to become consolidated again.

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