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AP Comparative Government (Chapter 8)

Cabinet

the senior ministers appointed by the prime minister

centralization

the process of giving more power, importance, or influence to central government

class

social status as determined by occupation, income, or education

Conservative Party

formerly the Tory party, Britain's most important right-of-center party and one of the two major parties in the British party system

Crown

the British symbol of government authority

decentralization

the process of giving more power, importance, or influence to local governments

devolution

delegation of authority

Downing Street

where the prime minister's residence is located

first past the post

plurality voting

government

the ruling body of the United Kingdom

House of Lords

the upper, non-elected house of the British parliament

individualist theory of government

theory that government's role is to represent individuals rather than organized group interests

insider pressure groups

interest groups that have values in harmony with every party and can negotiate

interest group theory of government

theory that government's role is to balance the demands of competing groups and classes in society

Irish Republican Army

a militant organization of Irish nationalists who used terrorism and guerilla warfare in a push for independence

Labour Party

Britain's leading democratic socialist party and one of the two major parties in the British party system

Liberal Democratic Party

Britain's "third" party and the closest one to a "left" currently in Parliament

multiparty system

a competitive party system consisting of more than two major parties

Northern Ireland

one of the four countries that make up the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (situated across the Irish Sea)

outsider pressure groups

interest groups that do not have values in harmony with the governing party and, therefore, cannot negotiate but turn to the media

Parliament

the legislative body of the United Kingdom, consisting of the House of Commons and the House of Lords

prime minister

the British head of government

privatization

process of converting government enterprises into privately owned companies

quangos

quasi-autonomous nongovernmental organizations, such as advisory committees or administrative tribunals

Scotland

one of the four countries that make up the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (situated north of England)

territorial justice

the belief that the same standards of public policy ought to apply everywhere in the country

Thatcherism

Margaret Thatcher's political ideology of free market, free trade

trusteeship theory of government

"the government's job is to govern"

United Kingdom

the state of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

unwritten constitution

a jumble of acts of Parliament, judicial pronouncements, customs, and conventions that determine the decision rules of politics in Britain

Wales

one of the four countries that make up the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (situated west of England)

Westminster

the district in London where Whitehall, Downing Street, and Parliament are all located

Whitehall

the London street of offices where many major government offices are located

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