what are the properties of primary growth?
elongation, it occurs in plants that live only one year, they have apical meristems, and it increases plant exposure to light.
Which of these ions is most likely to be leached from the soil?
- charged, soil tends to be negatively charged so the negatively charged ions tend to run off
what are the properties of secondary growth?
grow in thickness, has cork cambium and vascular cambium, lateral meristem, increases vascular flow, and provides structural support
what is a property of both secondary and primary growth?
they both occur in plants that live more than one year
what does the zone of cell division include?
apical meristem and adds new cells
what does the zone of elongation include?
it is the place where cells elongate and push the root tip further into the soil
what does the zone of differentiation include?
also known as the zone of maturation, where cells can differentiate into distinct cell types and can become vascular, dermal, or ground tissue types.
trees grow well in___ conditions
wet or warm
tree rings are small in diameter when conditions are _____
cold or dry
Water and ions can travel into the root by moving between cells or along cell walls is called what___
Water and ions can travel into the root by moving from cell to cell via plamsodesmata
Even water and ions that are traveling by the apoplastic route must eventually pass through cells, because of a waxy waterproof band called the___
In roots the _____ forces water and solutes to pass through the plasma membranes of _____ cells before entering the _____.
casparian strips, endodermis, xylem
_____ provide(s) the major force for the movement of water and solutes from roots to leaves.
what causes water molecules to stick together?
hydrogen bonds (cohesion)
what are guard cells?
cells that control the rate of water loss from the leaf
what is the mesophyll?
cells where most of the evaporation of water occurs in the leaf
what is the purpose of the lower and upper epidermis?
they are cells with a coating that prevent evaporation of water
what is a vein or vascular bundle's purpose?
a group of different cell types involved in long distance transport of water and nutrients
Symplastic pathways involves___
moving water via plasmodesmata, and can allow water to enter vacuoles in cells
apoplastic flow involves_____
involves water flow outside the protoplast, consists of a porous mixture of hydrophilic polymers
neither apoplastic or symplastic pathways involve
the passage of multiple cell membranes
what is the order of events that occur after water exits the xylem?
exits the xylem and enters the walls of the surrounding cells, then it spreads as a film on the surface of mesophyll cells, then it diffuses through the air spaces of the leaf, then it exits through the stomata
Plants must always compromise between ________ and __________.
maximizing photosynthesis and water loss
mycorrhiza and plants have what type of relationship?
mutualistic associations between plant roots and fungi.
The proton pump _____
uses the energy stored in ATP to produce a hydrogen ion gradient
A plant cell placed in a solution with a lower water potential will _____
lose water and plasmolyze.
Which of the following is a correct statement about a difference between xylem and phloem transport?
Xylem sap moves up; phloem sap moves up or down.
A student is performing a chemical analysis of xylem sap. This student should not expect to find much a) water b) nitrogen c) potassium d) sugar e) phosphorus.
sugar. phloem transports sugar
what is the driving force of guttation?
Xerophytes minimize water loss by _____
using the CAM pathway. they open the stomata at night to prevent heavy water loss
In addition to transporting sugar, the phloem also _____.
conduct electrical impulses, transport plant RNA throughout the plant, transport viral RNA, and transports proteins
soil particles are
Phosphorus is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
it is a macro. 0.2% H₂PO₄⁻, HPO₄²⁻,
component of nucleic acids. phospholipids, ATP , and several coenzymes
Chlorine is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
Cl⁻ micro. 0.001%
required for H₂O-splitting step of photosynthesis, function in H₂O balance
Sulfur is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
SO₄²⁻ 0.1% macro
component of proteins and coenzymes
Manganese is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
Mn²⁺ micro 0.005%
active in formation of amino acids, activates some enzyme; required for water-splitting step of photosynthesis
Iron is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
Fe³⁺, Fe²⁺ 0.01% micro
component of cytochrome; activates some enzymes
Magnesium is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
Mg²⁺ 0.2% macro
component of chlorophyll; activates many enzymes
Boron is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
H₂BO₃⁻ 0.002% micro
cofactor in chlorophyll synthesis; may be involved in carbohydrate transport and nucleic acid synthesis; role in cell wall function
Calcium is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
Ca²⁺ 0.05% macro
important in the formation and stability of cell walls and in maintenance of membrane structure and permeability; activates some enzymes; regulates many responses of cells to stimuli
nitrogen is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
NO₃⁻,NH₄⁺ 1.5% Macro
component of nucleic acids, proteins, hormones, chlorophyll, and coenzymes
Zinc is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
Zn²⁺, 0.002% micro
active in formation of chlorophyll; activates some enzymes
Potassium is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
K⁺ 1.0% macro
cofactor that functions in protein synthesis; major solute functioning in H₂O balance; operation of stomata
Nickel is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
Ni²⁺, 0.001% micro
cofactor for an enzyme functioning in nitrogen metabolism
Hydrogen is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
H₂O, 6% macro
MAJOR COMPONENTS OF PLANTS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Copper is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
Cu⁺, Cu²⁺ 0.001% mirco
component o f many redox and lignin-biosyntheitc enzymes
Carbon is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
CO₂ macro 45%
major component of plants organic compounds
oxygen is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
CO₂ macro 45%
major component of plants organic compounds
Molybdenum is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
MoO₄²⁻ micro 0.0001%
essential for symbiotic relationship with nitrogen fixing bacteria, cofactor in nitrate reduction
How do bacteria help plant growth?
they secrete chemicals to help stimulate growth, the help plants acquire nitrogen, make nutrients more available, and absorb toxic materials
all plants have what
they have mycorrihzal relationships and a rhizobacteria
What is nitrogen's role in plants?
plant roots cannot directly absorb N₂ from the atmosphere, it is a macronutirent, without it plants turn yellow, it is a component of nucleic acids, proteins, nitrogen fixing bacteria turn N₂ into NH₃, plant roots can only absorb nitrogen in the form of ammonium ions NH₄⁺ or nitrate ions NO₃⁻
What is topsoil?
It is a mixture of rock fragments, humus, and living organisms
Which of the following is a symptom of magnesium deficiency in plants?
what are the four types of tissues?
nervous, connective, muscular, and epithelial
what are the five different types of epithelial cells?
cubodial, simple columnar, psuedostratified ciliated Columnar, stratified squamos, and simple squamos
six major types of connective tissues are___
blood, adipose tissue, cartilage, loose connective tissue, fibrous connective tissue, and bone
nervous tissues are made of___
glia and neurons
three types of muscle tissue are___
skeletal, smooth, cardiac
cubodial epithelium is used for
specialized for secretion
simple columnar epithelium is used for
lining the intestines
psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelial cells are used for
forms a mucous membrane (lines respiratory tract)
stratified squamous epithelial cells
line the outer surface of the skin and lines the insides of the esophagus, anus and vagina
simple squamous epithelial cells are used for
they are thin and leaky. they function in exchange of material via diffusion; lines blood vessels and air sacs of lungs
loose connective tissue does what?
its made of collagenous, elastic and recticular fibers; it holds organs in place
what does fibrous connective tissue do?
fibrous form parallel bundles that are nonelastic; it holds bones and joints together; found in ligaments and tendons
What does adipose connective tissue do?
it is a special loose connective tissue that stores fat; it serves as an insulator for the body
what does the bone serve as?
what does cartilage do?
it is chondrotin sulfate; is cushions the vertebrates and is found in between bones
What is the function of blood?
it is a connective tissue that transports things around the body
What is skeletal muscle?
it is bundles of long striated cells; it attaches bones by tendons. it is responsible for voluntary movement
what is cardiac muscle?
form contractile wall of the heart. it is striated responsible for involuntary actions
what is smooth muscle?
lacks striations; involuntary body activities it is found in the stomach and intestines
What are neurons?
long extensions that transport action potentials
What are glia cells?
the are the protective sheath around the neurons
regulators do what??
maintain constant internal temperature
conformers do what?
allow body temp to match the environment
whats the difference is homeotherms and poilkilotherms?
homeo - maintian constant temp p-have variable temps; can generate their own heat
What is radiation?
body absporbing heat through sunlight
What is conduction?
direct heat transfer from A surface
what is convection?
the transfer of heat through air movement
what is evaporation?
removal of heat from the surface of a liquid
How can you lower body temp?
sweating, painting and vasodialating
How can you raise body temp?
shivering and vasoconstriction
endotherms are ___
mammals and birds
What is the process by which food is moved along the digestion tract by smooth muscle contractions?
Parietal Cells function is what?
they secrete H⁺ and Cl⁻ ions separately in the stomach
What is the route of food digestion?
Pepsinogen is secreted by what?
Which structure is not part of the alimentary canal? a)esophagus b)stomach c)salivary glands d)mouth
most of the digestion that occurs in the stomach is of what?
proteins not carbohydrates
One advantage of having a tube-like digestive tract is that digestive processes with different requirements can be separated within the tract.
Bile is produced by the _____ and stored by the _____ until it is secreted into the small intestine.
its release is triggered by CCK
When digested, proteins are broken down into _____.
When digested fats are broken down into____
glycerol and fatty acids
What are sucrose, fructose, and starch?
Protein digestion begins in the ___
_____ is secreted by the _____ and acts to emulsify _____ in the _____
bile... liver.. fats... small intestine
Most carbon dioxide is carried from the body tissues to the lungs _____.
as carbonate ions
What is the function of a circulatory system?
It brings a transport liquid into close contact with all cells in the body.
Why do the circulatory systems of land vertebrates have separate circuits to the lungs and to the rest of the body?
The large decrease in blood pressure as blood moves through the lungs may prevent efficient circulation through the rest of the body.
The pulmonary circulation is the ____pressure circuit to the lung, whereas the systemic circulation is the ____pressure circuit to the rest of the body.
pulmonary is lower
systemic circulation is higher
What is the function of the left ventricle?
It pumps oxygenated blood around the body via the systemic circulation.
The systolic blood pressure is the peak blood pressure, resulting from contraction of the_____.
Blood pressure is highest in the__
___ have the thinnest walls
Carbon dioxide enters the blood at the _____.
head, forelimbs, abdominal organs, and hind limbs
What is the way blood pumps through the body?
rt. ventricle, pulmonary artery, capillaries of lungs, pulmonary vein, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta, head/feet, superior and inferior vena cava, and then to the right atrium into the right ventricle
the smaller an animal is the____ it's SA to volume ratio is and the ____ it looses heat
Vitamin B₁(thiamine) is a ___ soluble vitamin
found in pork,beans
coenzyme used to remove CO₂ from organic compounds
without it we would have nerve disorders (beriberi)
vitamin B₂ (riboflavin) is ____ soluble vitamin
component of coenzymes FAD and FMN
skin lesions cracks around mouth
Niacin (B₃) is a ___soluble vitamin
in NAD⁺ and NADP⁺
skin and gi lesions nervous disorders (too much leads to liver damage)
Vitamin B₆ (pyridoxine) is a ___soluble vitamin
meats, veggies, whole grains
amino acid metabolism
irritability, convulsions, muscular twitching, anemia(too much numb feet poor coordination, unstable gait)
Pantothenic acid (B₅)___soluble vitamin
meats, dairy, whole grains
fatigue, numbness, tingling of hands and feet
Folic Acid ___soluble vitamin (B₉)
green veggies, oranges, nuts, beans
coenzyme in nucelic acid and amino acid metabolism
anemia, birth defects (may mask deficiency of B₁₂)
O₂ is ____ in tissues so it flows from ____ to ____
lower.....blood to tissues
O₂ is transported attached to ____
CO₂ is higher in the _____ so it travels from___ to _____
tissues....tissues to blood
erythrocytes essentially pulls___ out of the tissues
Vitamin B₁₂ ____ soluble vitamin
found in meats, eggs, and dairy products
coenzyme in nucleic acid metabolism
anemia and nervous system disorders without it
Biotin _____soluble vitamin
found in beans, other vegetables, meat
coenzyme in synthesis of fat, glycogen, and amino acids
scaly skin inflammation, neuromuscular disorders`
vitamin C (ascorbic acid) _____soluble vitamin
fruits veggies, citrus fruits, Broccoli, cabbage, tomatoes, green peppers
used for collagen synthesis antioxidant
scurvy, weakness, delayed healing
gi upset with too much
Vitamin A (retinol) ___soluble vitamin
dairy , deep green and orange vegetables and fruits
visual pigments maintenance of epithelial tissues
blindness and death
with too much headache, irritability, vomiting, hair loss, blurred Vision, liver and bone damage
vitamin D____soluble vitamin
aids in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus promotes bone growth
rickets( bone deformities)bone softening in adults
with too much brain, heart, and kidney damage
vitamin E (tocopherol)
veggies, oils, nuts, seeds
prevents damage to cell membranes
degeneration of nervous system
vitamin K (phylloquinone)
green veggies, tea, colon
important for blood clotting
without it no blood clotting
too much liver damage or anemia
Calcium is needed to prevent what? and what is it's main function?
retarded growth, loss of bone mass
bone and tooth formation, blood clotting , nerve and muscle function
Phosphorus is needed to prevent what? and what is it's main function?
Bone and tooth formation, acid-base balance, and nucleotide synthesis
weakness, loss of minerals from bone, calcium loss
Sulfur is needed to prevent what? and what is it's main function?
component of certain amino acids
Potassium is needed to prevent what? and what is it's main function?
acid-base balance, water balance, nerve function
muscular weakness, nausea, paralysis, heart failure
chlorine is needed to prevent what? and what is it's main function?
acid-base balance formation of gastric juices, nerve function, and osmotic balance
muscle cramps, reduced appetite
Sodium is needed to prevent what? and what is it's main function?
acid-base balance, water balance, nerve function
muscle cramps reduced appetite.
Magnesium is needed to prevent what? and what is it's main function?
cofactor; ATP bio energetics
nervous system disturbances
Animals need two types of organic precursors from their food, _____, to serve as the raw materials for the synthesis of larger organic molecules.
organic carbon and nitrgen
In general, B vitamins function in your body as _____.
vitamin c is required to produce ___
Bile is ___ in the gallbladder it is actually made in the ___
Pepsin works best in __ environment
parenchyma cells are___
living, thin and flexible have chloroplasts
collenchyma cells are___
living support. they are flexible enough to allow growth
Sclerenchyma cells are ___
dead, rigid cells that are supported by lignin
trachieds and vessel elements are___
dead support systems for the xylem
vessels are generally shorted and wider
tracheids are long thin cells
sieve tubes and companion cells are____
living support systems of the phloem
companion cells have nuclei that function for both cells they are connected via plamodesmata to the sieve tube cells.
n what order would you pass through tissues when moving from the pith to the epidermis in a plant possessing secondary vascular tissue
primary xylem, secondary xylem, vascular cambium, secondary phloem, primary phloem
Lateral roots in seed plants are initiated by cell divisions in the ____
A cross section of a plant part exposes epidermis, a thick cortex, and a central cylinder of xylem and phloem. This part is a ____
root central cylinder is found in roots
in the stems it is mostly found in bundles
proton pumps ____ ___of the cell