CH.19 Early Latin America

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Caravel

A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.

Pagan

a person who does not acknowledge your God

Monoculture

farming strategy in which large fields are planted with a single type of crop, year after year

Plantation

an estate where cash crops are grown on a large scale (especially in tropical areas)

Rum

Molasses fermented becomes rum.
New England became the main producer because of the easy access to molasses
Became the first cheap distilled liquor in England

Encomienda system

It gave settlers the right to tax local Native Americans or to make them work(mainly in plantations). In exchange, these settlers were supposed to protect the Native American people and convert them to Christianity

Peninsulare

the top of Spanish-American society; people born in Spain; could hold office

Creole

The #2 in Spanish-American society; people born in New Spain

Mestizo

person of mixed American Indian and European ancestry(majority)

Interdependence

a relationship between countries in which they rely on one another for resources, goods, or services

Rigid class system

A social class system where there is no mobility. A person remains in the same class their entire life.

Social Mobility

The ability of individuals to move from one social standing to another. Social standing is based on degrees of wealth, prestige, education and power.

Middle Passage

a voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies

Mulatto

The term used in Spanish and Portuguese colonies to describe someone of mixed African and European descent.

Zambos

People of mixed Native American and African descent. Lowest tier of social class, with no rights whatsoever.

Las Casas

A priest who spoke out against the mistreatment of native peoples under the care of the church. He persuaded Spain to pass the New Law of the Indes in 1542 saying that native peoples must be paid for their work.

Pizarro

Spanish explorer who conqured the Incan Empire.

Cortez

Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)

Social Hierarchy

The division of society by rank or class

Coronado

Discovered the Grand Canyon in search of the fabled Cities of Gold

Tupac Amaru

Mestizo leader of Indian revolt in Peru; supported by many among lower social classes; revolt eventually failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution.

Castile

Largest Spainish kingdom - united with Aragon when Isabella & Ferdinand marry

Tenochititlan

- great capital city of the Aztecs that was built on a lake and every building andfarm was built atop lake beds made dry by damming.

Council of the Indies

The institution responsible for supervising Spain's colonies in the Americas from 1524 to the early eighteenth century, when it lost all but judicial responsibilites.

Capitalism

an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.

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