Causes of Protestant Reformation
Renaissance values: (less religion, focus on the individual)
Problems with Church: selling indulgences, corruption (because of wealth, patronage, focus on art and war)
Luther's Protest and 95 Theses
1517 - Martin Luther wrote book of his thoughts to help out church (95 Theses). Church takes it badly.
Role of the Printing Press
Helps Protestantism spread through Germany and then Europe.
Support Reformation because church had land princes thought was theirs, princes could get money.
Supported Reformation because they wanted to go up in the social ladder. End up being treated even worse.
French priest. Supported Reformation because he didn't agree with Catholic church. Believed in theocracy. Preached predestination (people have already been chosen to go to heaven or hell).
Was very big supporter of Catholicism. Supported Reformation because he wanted to divorce his wife so he could marry his maid so he could have an heir, but pope refused to not offend Charles V. Takes control of church and adopts Protestantism.
Pope Leo X
Critic of Reformation because he was the pope at the time. Excommunicated Luther.
Holy Roman Emperor. Critic of Reformation because he supported Catholicism. Tried to make Luther give up beliefs, made him outlaw. Enacts Peace of Augsburg in 1525.
Pope Paul III
Critic of Reformation because he was the pope after Leo X. Tries to reform Catholicism. Began Catholic reformation. Approves of Inquisition to squash Protestantism. Makes Index of Forbidden Books, allows burning of said books. Holds Council of Trent (1545-65) to decide how to reform Catholicism.
St. Ignatius of Loyala
Spanish knight. Critic of Reformation because he believes firmly in Catholicism. Founds Jesuits to advise the pope and travel around to teach religion.
Teresa of Avila
Spanish nun. Critic of Reformation because she firmly believes in Catholicism. Reforms converts. Makes more interest in becoming a nun.
Consequences of the Protestant and Catholic Reformations
Church more vulnerable, more weakened authority, widespread prosecution, religious conflicts, denominations (branches of religions), less corruption (reform in Cath. church), missionaries around the world getting converts.