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TRUE

The amount of movement permitted by a particular joint is the basis for the functional
classification of joints.

FALSE

All joints permit some degree of movement, even if very slight.

FALSE

Hinge joints permit movement in only two planes.

TRUE

Synovial fluid is a viscous material that is derived by filtration from blood.

TRUE

The articular surfaces of synovial joints play a minimal role in joint stability.

TRUE

The major role of ligaments at synovial joints is to help direct movement and restrict
undesirable movement.

FALSE

The only movement allowed between the first two cervical vertebrae is flexion.

TRUE

Movement at the hip joint does not have as wide a range of motion as at the shoulder joint.

TRUE

A person who has been diagnosed with a sprained ankle has an injury to the ligaments that
attach to that joint.

TRUE

A movement of the forearm in which the palm of the hand is turned from posterior to
anterior is supination.

FALSE

The wrist joint can exhibit adduction and eversion movements.

FALSE

Cruciate ligaments are important ligaments that stabilize all ball-and-socket joints.

TRUE

Flexion of the ankle so that the superior aspect of the foot approaches the shin is called
dorsiflexion.

TRUE

The gripping of the trochlea by the trochlear notch constitutes the "hinge" for the elbow joint.

FALSE

The ligamentum teres represents a very important stabilizing ligament for the hip joint.

TRUE

The structural classification of joints is based on the composition of the binding material and
the presence or absence of a joint cavity.

TRUE

Synovial fluid contains phagocytic cells that protect the cavity from invasion by microbes or
other debris.

FALSE

A person who has been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis would be suffering loss of the
synovial fluids.

TRUE

A ball-and-socket joint is a multiaxial joint.

TRUE

Bending of the tip of the finger exhibits flexion.

FALSE

Dislocations in the TMJ almost always dislocate posteriorly with the mandibular condyles
ending up in the infratemporal fossa.

FALSE

Symphyses are synarthrotic joints designed for strength with flexibility.

gomphosis

A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a ________ joint.

prevent hyperextension of the knee

The cruciate ligaments of the knee ________.

provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints

Articular cartilage found at the ends of the long bones serves to ________.

symphysis

A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that usually permits a slight degree of
movement is a ________.

syndesmosis

On the basis of structural classification, which joint is fibrous connective tissue?

bursae

Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where
friction develops are called ________.

amphiarthroses

Articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement are ________.

Synchondroses

________ are cartilaginous joints.

plane

The gliding motion of the wrist is accomplished because of the ________ joint

cruciate ligaments

The ligaments that protect the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles and limit the
movement of the femur anteriorly and posteriorly are called ________.

hyperextension

Bending your head back until it hurts is an example of ________.

All synovial joints are freely movable.

In the classification of joints, which of the following is true?

permit essentially no movement

Synarthrotic joints ________.

sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses

Fibrous joints are classified as ________.

hyaline cartilage

In symphysis joints the articular surfaces of the bones are covered with ________.

It contains hyaluronic acid.

Synovial fluid is present in joint cavities of freely movable joints. Which of the following
statements is true about this fluid?

cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones

Which of the following statements defines synchondroses?

semilunar cartilage pads

What are menisci?

Gliding movements occur at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints.

Which of the following is a true statement regarding gliding movements?

abduction

What is moving a limb away from the median plane of the body along the frontal plane
called?

feet

The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to the ________.

multiaxial

The hip joint is a good example of a(n) ________ synovial joint.

uniaxial rotation

Movement allowed in a pivot joint is known as ________.

rare because of the ligament reinforcement

Compared to the shoulder, displacements of the hip joints are ________.

anular

Which ligament holds the radius to the ulna at the proximal end?

the patellar ligament

Which ligament of the knee initiates the knee-jerk reflex when tapped?

medial collateral, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate

Football players often sustain lateral blows to the extended knee. Which of the ligaments is
(are) damaged as a result?

osteoarthritis

Which of the following conditions is generally considered a noninflammatory type of
arthritis?

excessive blood levels of uric acid deposited as crystals in the soft tissue joints

What can cause gouty arthritis?

plantar flexion

Pointing the toes is an example of ________.

The anular ligament surrounds the head of the radius.

Which of the following is a true statement?

the hip and shoulder

Multiaxial joints of the body include ________.

hinge joint

Presence of a synovial cavity, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, and ligaments are
characteristics of what type of joint?

lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements

Extracapsular ligaments stabilizing the knee include ________.

Joints develop in parallel with bones.

Which of the following is a correct statement about development of joints?

the radius and ulna along its length

An example of an interosseus fibrous joint is ________.

They change (increase or decrease) the angle between two bones.

Which of the following statements best describes angular movements?

The trapezium of the carpal bone and the thumb's metacarpal

Saddle joints have concave and convex surfaces. Name the two bones of the hand that
articulate to form a saddle joint.

act as friction-reducing structures

Tendon sheaths ________.

tendon sheath

Which of the following is not a part of the synovial joint?

number of bones in the joint

Which of the following is not a factor that contributes to keeping the articular surfaces of
diarthroses in contact?

inversion

Turning the foot medially at the ankle would be called ________.

protraction

Moving your jaw forward, causing an underbite, is called ________.

bursa

A ________ is a fluid-filled sac a tendon slides over.

suture

The joint between the frontal and parietal bones is called a ________ joint.

Once long bone growth in length is complete, the cartilage of the epiphyseal plates
ossifies to become a permanent synostosis.

Why are epiphyseal plates considered temporary joints?

diarthrosis

Using the functional classification, a freely movable joint would be called a ________ joint.

ball-and-socket

The hip joint, like the shoulder joint, is a ________ joint.

subluxation

Partial dislocation of a joint is called a ________.

saddle

The type of joint between the carpal and the first metacarpal is a ________ joint.

articular cartilage, a joint cavity, an articular capsule, synovial fluid, and reinforcing
ligaments

Synovial joints have five major features. What are they?

Exercise does not prevent arthritis, but it strengthens muscles that in turn support and
stabilize joints.

Often people who exercise prudently seem to have fewer bouts with osteoarthritis. Will
exercise prevent arthritis? If so, how?

hinge, flexion

Bending the elbow: ________, ________.

pivot, rotation

Turning head side to side: ________, ________.

ball and socket, adduction

Lowering your arm to your side: ________, ________.

plane, inversion

Turning the sole of foot medially: ________, ________.

The thumb possesses a saddle joint where each articular surface has both a concave and
a convex surface.

While the fingers can exhibit flexion and extension and other angular motions, the thumb has
much greater freedom. Why?

The ends of each bone are covered with hyaline cartilage that is continuous with the
synovial membrane enclosing the joint. Synovial fluid fills the space between the articular
cartilage. Outside the synovial membrane there is a very tough, fibrous capsule that prevents the
synovial membrane from bulging out as pressure is applied to the ends of the bones.

Describe a typical synovial joint.

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