Globalization

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Honors American Govt/Human Geography Unit 2

globalization

an interconnected expansion of economic, social, and cultural interactions across the world
- financial trade links people together
- creates multinational corporations in transnational legal and political environment
- i.e. Italian fashions in Japan

cultural diffusion

spread out of culture

fundamentalism

strict religion law

religion

- religious fundamentalism on the rise in areas of oppression and where prospects of democracy are dim
- Shiite fundamentalism led to the fall of Shah of Iran in 1979

Domino Theory

if one country falls to communism, the others will follow

Two Waves of Decolonization

1) independence of America
2) independence of Asia/Africa
- Africa was colonized for resources after WWII
- Asia was colonized after WWI

Immanuel Wallerstein's World-Systems Theory

1) the world economy has one market and a global division of labor
2) Although the world has multiple states, almost everything takes place within the context of world economy
3) World economy has a three tier structure
- Core, Semi-Periphery, Periphery

capitalism

an economic system in which the people have freedom to buy and sell in order to receive a product

commodification

the transformation of goods, services, or ideas into a commodity

commodity

a demanded good, but is supplied without qualitative differentiation across a market

Core Countries

USA, western Europe, Canada, Japan

core

incorporates higher levels of education and technology, higher salaries, and generates more money

Semi-Periphery Countries

Mexico, China

semi-periphery

improving level of education and technology, height of salaries, and amount of money, but still is based of agriculture and in poverty

Periphery Countries

India, Sub-Saharan Africa, Central America

periphery

low levels of education and technology, low salaries, generates less money, overpopulated, and lots of poverty

unitary

a system of government that gives all its key powers to the national or central government

federal

a system of government that divides the powers between central and state government

Shari'a Laws

-North Africa
- legal systems based on traditional Islamic laws
- oppressive to women

geopolitics

the interplay among geography, power, politics, international relations

MacKinder's Heartland Theory

"He who rules East Europe commands the Heartland. He who rules the Heartland commands the World Island. He who rules the World Island commands the world."

Geopolitical World Order

1) bi-polar - after WWII (the US and USSR)
2) multi-polar - many major powers
3) unilateralism

unilateralism

one state acts alone, creating resentment and hostility
- i.e. USA

supernational organizations

nation-states that have come together on a common goal

Examples of Supernational Organizations

UN - peace
NATO - security
EU (European Union) - economic and political

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