Blood is a __________________ tissue that consists of cells and cell fragments surrounded by a ____________
liquid connective tissue
liquid extracellular matrix
The extracellular matrix of blood is also called ________________
___________ bathes body cells, and is constantly renewed by blood.
Carbon dioxide and other wastes move from ____________ to _________ to blood.
Name the 3 general functions of blood and describe each.
1. transportation-gases, blood transports oxygen from lungs to cells of the body and carbon dioxide from body cells to lungs, nutrients from the GI tract, hormones, heat and waste products to various organs for elimination.
2. Regulation-circulating blood helps maintain homeostasis of all body fluids, helps regulate pH through use of buffers, adjust body temperature, ossmotic pressure influences water content in cells
3. protection-blood can clot, white blood cells prevent against disease by carrying phagocytosis
blood transports oxygen from the lungs, nutrition from the GI tract, which diffuse across _________ into the _________ and then into __________.
blood is _________ and more _____ then water.
________% of nutrients from GI tract absorbed into blood goes to the liver.
Blood carries hormones from _____________ to other body cells
Blood buffers are mostly made up of _____________ and ___________.
proteins and HCO3
Describe vasodilation and vasconstriction.
push blood to where it is needed
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, particularly the large arteries, small arterioles, and veins.
Vasodilation refers to the widening of blood vessels resulting from relaxation of smooth muscle cells within the vessel walls, particularly in the large arteries, smaller arterioles and large veins.
____________ are interconnecting networks of tiniest blood vessels.
What 2 components make up whole blood?
1. blood plasma(a watery liquid extracellular matrix that contains dissolved substances)
2. formed elements(cells and cell fragments)
blood is about ____% formed elements and _______%blood plasma.
99% of formed elements are cells called_____
__________ and _______ occupy less then 1% of formed elements in blood.
__________ are less dense then RBC, but more dense then blood plasma.
blood plasma is about 90% ______ and 8% ____(most of which are proteins). Principle solutes include ________(name several)
-albumins, globulins, fibrinogen, nutrients, vitamins, hormones, waste product
True or False. Capillaries are very leaky?
Proteins like __________ are to big to leak out of blood vessels-this creates _______________.
osmotic pressure (suction effect)
_______ makes most of proteins found in capillaries.
If you didn't have proteins like albumen in blood vessels what would happen?
all the fluid blood would leak out and your body would run out of blood.
Cells access nutrients, hormones, oxygen exchange, and fluid plasma through ______________.
_________(liver cells) synthesize most plasma proteins.
Name 4 plasma proteins. Besides proteins, what other solutes are in blood plasma?
Proteins=albumins, globulins, gamma globulins (antibodies), fibrinogen
other solutes=electrolytes, nutrients, enzymes, hormones, gases and waste products
___________ is the liquid portion of blood and is a solvent that absorbs, transports, and releases heat
_______ are the smallest and most numberous of proteins in blood.
________ are the largest proteins in blood
_________ are a large protein in blood and plays an essential role in blood clotting
_____________ are responsible for osmotic pressure, major contributor to blood viscosity, transports hormones fatty acids and calcium, helps regulate pH
What 3 things does blood plasma contain?
proteins, solutes, and water
What 3 things are in the formed elements of blood?
RBC, WBC, Platelets
The extracellular matrix in blood is fluid which is called ___________
What is the shape of a healthy red blood cell?
RBC and WBC are _____ cells, platelets are cell ______.
Name 5 types of WBC's
neurtrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils
What are the 2 different categories of WBC's and name the cells in each.
1. Granular leukocytes
2. Agranular Leukocytes
-T and B lymphocytes and natural killer (NK)
The formation of red blood cells is called ___________________
Hemopoiesis or hemotopoiesis
__________is the primary site for hemopoesis in adults
red bone marrow-found inbetween trabicula of long flat bones, and the epipysis of long bones
________ cells have the ability to develop into many different types of cells.
pluripotent stem cells
abundance of WBC types bases on response to_______________.
invading pathogens or foreign antigens
Stem Cells In bone marrow __________ and ___________ into cells that give rise to blood cells.
-proliferate and differentiate
_______________do not divide once they leave red bone marrow
-exception is lymphocytes
What 2 types of stem cells are produced by Pluripotent stem cells?
1. myeloid stem cells
2. Lymphoid stem cells
_________________ give rise to red blood cells, platelets, monocytes, neurophils, eosinophils and basophils. ________________ give rise to lymphocytes
myeloid stem cells
Lymphoid stem cells
Hemopoietic growth factors do what?
regulate differentiation and proliferation
name 4 hemopoietic growth factors.
Colony-Stimulating factors (CSFs)-WBCs
If kidneys detect low oxygen levels, they secrete _________________ to make more RBCs
Red blood cells carry an oxegen-carrying protein called _________________.
Red blood cells are strong and flexible allowing them to squeeze through _______ without rupturing.
True/False. Red blood cells have a nucleus
True/False. Red blood cells can reproduce
_____________ in plasmas membrane of RBCs responsible for ABO and Rh blood groups
Do red blood cells have mitochondria?
No, they don't use oxygen
1 Hemoglobin carries ___ oxygen molecules (O2)?
RBC's generate ATP how?
hemoglobin contain protein called ______ which is composed of 4 polypeptide chains, and a nonprotein pigment called _______
_________ is located in the center of a heme.
___________ transports 23% of total carbon dioxide.
blood flowing though capillaries picks up carbon dioxide, which combines with ___________ in the globin.
nitric oxide (NO) binds to _________, which releases NO causing ____________.
___________=(O2 bound to iron ion). ____________=(CO2)
___________ is mostly dissolved in plasma as HCO3. (bicarbonate ion)
_____________ is mostly carried by Hb some. dissolved in plasma
RBC only live about _____ days
RBC are removed from circulation and destroyed by _________________ in the liver and spleen.
fixed phagocytic macrophanges
Breakdown products of RBC are recycled
___________ and ___________ are reused.
globin's amino acids and iron
_____________ends up as yellow pigment uronilin in urine
.......or brown pigment stercobilin in feces
when iron is removed from heme, the non iron portion of heme is converted to biliverdin and then into ________(yellow orange pigment).
Bilirubin enters the blood and is transported to ___________
the liver-then sm intestine, then large intestine
In the larger intestine bilirubin is converted into _____________. Some of the ______ is absorbed back into the blood as a yellow pigment called _________.
where is bile (waste material) made?
Most of the urobilinogen is eliminated in feces in the form of a brown pigment called __________.
Erythropoesis is what?
Production of RBCs
Erythropoesis starts in the red bone marrow with a precursor cell called ______________.
proerythroblast divides several tomes producing cells that begin to synthesize ________.
cells near the end of the proerythroblast development ejects its nucleus and becomes a __________.
if you have a lot of reticulocytes=_______________.
low oxygen and low RBC's
decrease O2 is sensed by the
_________________= increase in ____________, which increase RBC's
Reticulocytes...develop into mature RBC within _______ days
hypoxia(low oxygen) stimulates release of _________________.
True/False. White blood cells have a nucleus and other oragnelles.
WBC's do not contain ________ unlike RBC's
Describe a Neutrophil
WBC-respond most quickly to tissue damage by bacteria
-uses lysozymes, strong oxidants
WBC's are catagorized as ___________ or _________ based on staining.
granular or agranular
Immune response, and long term immunity= what type of WBC?
_______________ is an increase in WBC's
due to normal protective response to invaders, strenuous exercise, anesthesia and surgery.
___________ is a decreases WBC's...is never beneficial (ex: AIDS). General function to combat invaders by phagocytosis or immune responses
Many WBC's leave the bloodstream which is called __________, in which they roll along the __________, stick to it, and then squeeze between _______________.
__________ is the inner lining of a blood vessel
*cappilaries only have this
_____________ are most abundant in WBC
_____________ and ______________ are active phagocytes
neutrophils and macrophanges
Several different chemicals released by microbes and inflamed tissues attract phagocytes, a phenomonon called ____________.
____________ take longer to arrive but arrive in larger numbers and destroys more microbes
-monocytes enlarge and differentiate into macrophanges.
_____________ enlarge and differentiate into macrophanges.
_________(least abundant in WBC's)-leave capillaries and release granules containing, histamine at sites of inflammation.
what type of WBC is involved with Intensity inflammatory reaction, involved in hypersensitivity reactions (allergies)
_____________ are (2nd least abundant WBC)-leave capillaries and enter tissue fluid
-effective against certain parasitic worms
-elevated in autoimmune diseases (own cells attack themselves)
____________ are the 2nd most abundant WBC
-major "soldiers" of immune system
__________ cells (bone marrow)-destroy bacteria and inactivating their toxins
-become plasma cells→make antibodies (also known as humeral immunity)
-memory cells-can remember virus or bacteria (ex: chickenpox)
___________(thymus gland)-attack viruses, fungi, transplanted cells, cancer cells and some bacteria
-cells mediated immunity
_________cells-attach a wide variety of infections microbes and certain tumor cells.
-Natural killer (NK) cells
myeloid stem cells develop eventually into ____________.
Name the 3 responses the stop bleeding and describe each.
1. vascular spasm-smooth muscle in artery or arteriole walls contracts
2.platelet plug formation
Platletes stick to parts of damaged blood vessels become activated and accumulate large numbers
3.blood clotting (coagulation)
What is blood serum. Describe it.
If blood is drawn outside the vessels it thickens and forms a gel. Blood plasma minus the clotting proteins. This separates the other part, gel called clot which contains insoluble proteins fibers called fibrin in which formed elements of the blood are trapped.
what is blood clotting
series of chemical reactions culminating in formation of fibrin threads
What is serum made of?
all the stuff in plasma minus clotting proteins
Discuss the 3 stages of blood clotting
1. formation of prothrombinase
2. Prothrombinase converts prothrombin into thrombin
3. Thrombin converts fibrinogen (soluble) into fibrin (insoluble) forming the threads of the clot.
prothrombinase and fibrinogen are made where?
in the liver
what are agglutinogens?
the surface of antigens composed of glycoproteins and glycolipids
-surface of RBC's contain genetically determined assortment of antigens
What determines blood groups?
based on presence or absence of various antigens
There are at least _____ blood groups and more then _____ antigens that can be detected on the surface of RBC.
Name the two major blood groups
ABO and Rh
What is the ABO group based on?
2 glycolipid antigens called A and B
People who have only antigen A have type ____ blood.
People who have antigen B have type ____ blood.
People who have both A and B antigens have type ______.
People who have neither A or B antigens have type _______.
A universal blood recipient has type ____ blood. While the universal donor has type _____blood
Blood plasma usually contains antibodies called _______ that react with the A or B antigens if the two are mixed. For example if you are blood type B you have ____ antigens or your red blood cells, and you have ___ antibodies in your blood plasma.
__________ float around and detect foreign substances and fight off
The cardiovascular system consists of ________,____________, and _________.
blood, heart, blood vessels
Blood has a _______ greater then water, and a pH of ________. Blood consists of about __% body weight and volume is ____ liters in adults
the ______ is the percentage of total blood volume occupied by red blood cells.
The formed elements in blood consist of red blood cells (____________), WBC (__________), and platelets (____________)
__________ is the formation of RBC's from hemopoietic stem cells in red bone marrow.
Myeloid stem cells form __________, ______, ______, and ________.
RBC, platlets, granulocytes, monocytes
Lymphoid stem cells give rise to _______
several __________ stimulate differentiation and proliferation of the various blood cells.
hemopoietic growth factors
What is the purpose of hemoglobin in RBC's?
to transport oxygen and some carbon dioxide
After phagocytosis of aged RBC's by microphanges, _________ is recycles.
RBC formation, called _______ occurs where?
occurs in red bone marow in adults
erythropoiesis is stimulated by ________, which stimulates the release of ___________ by the kidneys.
A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates__________
the rate of erythropoiesis
What is the general function of WBC's?
combat inflamation and infection
what is the function of neutrophils and macrophanges and how do they do this?
combat inflamation and infection through phagocytosis
What does and eosinophil do?
combat effectivness of histamine in allergic reactions
What does phagocytize antigen-antibody do?
complexes and combat parasitic worms
What do basophils do?
liberate heparin, histamine, and serotonin in allergic reactions that intensify the inflammatory response
B lymphocytes, in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens differentiate into __________ that produce ______.
Antibodies attach to _______ and render them harmless.
What is the purpose of B lymphocytes?
combat infection and provide immunity
What is the purpose of T lymphocytes?
destroy foreign invaders directly.
What do NK natural killer cells do?
attack infectious microbes and tumor cells
Except for _____ which may live years, _______ usually live for only a few hours or a few days.
____________ are disc-shaped cell fragments that splinter from megakaryocytes.
What is the purpose of platelets?
stop blood loss from damages blood vessels by forming platelet plug
hemostasis refers to what?
refers to the stoppage of bleeding
Describe a vascular spasm.
smooth muscle tissue of a blood vessel wall contracts, which slows blood loss
Platelet plus formation involves ________ to stop bleeding
What is a clot?
a network of insoluble protein fibers (fibrin) in which formed elements of the blood are trapped
Name the 3 factors/stages involved with blood clotting
1. formation of prothrombinase
2. conversion of prothrombin into thrombin
3. conversion of soluble fibrinogen into soluble fibrin
normal coagulation involves vitamin ____ and is followed by _________, and ultimately ______.
clot retraction (tightening of clot)
fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot)
clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called __________.
ABO and Rh blood groups are genetically determined and based on ________________.
In Rh blood types people whos RBC have Rh antigens are classified as ___________, while people who lack Rh antigens are classified as _________.
the different series of _____________ make antigens which make blood groups.
the ________ side of the heart is more powerful then the _____side
What is hemopoesis?
the process by which the formed elements of blood develop.
_____________is pigment that contains iron that binds with oxygen
What part of a RBC gets recycled? What part gets excreted?
globins amino acids
What is jaundice?
tissue turns yellow due to billirubin
Most carbon dioxide is converted as _________ and is carried by plasma
Most oxygen is carried by what type of cells?
non iron heme ends up as a yellow pigment called _________________, or a brown pigments called ____________/
____________________(waste product of red blood cells)→to liver, decrease bile, sm. intestines
What is bile and where is it made?
*bile (waste material) is made in the liver
A decrease in O2 is sensed by the ___________, which then increase in ______________, which increase RBC's
what is leukocytosis?
an increase in WBC's
what is leukopenia?
-decreases WBC's...is never beneficial
______________is a normal protective response to invaders, strenuous exercise, anesthesia and surgery.
____________ is a general function to combat invaders by phagocytosis or immune responses.
neutrophils and macrophanges are active ____________
_________ are attracted by chemotaxis.
the movement of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) toward inflammation (from tissue injury) as a direct result of chemicals released by the tissue to attract the neutrophils towards it. neutrophils have the ability to phagotose any microbes (eat and destroy them)
________________are most abundant in WBC-1st to the scene of infection and start process of phagocytosis
__________ get to the scene first, but ____________ comes later and have a bigger overall effect on chemotaxis
_______________ develop into macrophages
Name the WBC that is related to histamine/allergic reaction
name the WBC that is associated with parasitic, allergys.
Name the 2 least abundant WBC
_________________ deal with an overall role in immunity, immune response
long term immunity=what type of WBC?
What WBC deals with viral infections?
What WBC is associated with viruses, cancer cells
NK natural killer cells
What cell is most associated with the blood clotting process.
WHat is serum?
serum is blood plasma (fluid portion of blood) minus clotting proteins
What creates ABO group?