proteins released by activated lymphocytes and macrophages which then stimulate healthy cells to produce antiviral proteins which prevent viruses from replicating should they enter the healthy cell
What releases Interferons?
these proteins are released by activated lymphocytes & macrophages
What do Interferons do?
these proteins stimulate healthy cells to produce antiviral proteins which prevent viruses from replicating should they enter the healthy cell
what is a cytokine?
a chemical messenger used to control cells locally
B cell activation: activated T helper cell binds to B cell
define the complement system
11 specific plasma proteins which are involved in complementing the action of antibodies
describe the complement system
inactive complement proteins activated in a cascading type of chain reaction
complement either attracts what, enhances what, stimulates what or destroys what??
1. attracts phagocytes
2. enhances phagocytosis
3. stimulates inflammatory response
4. destroys microbes
what occurs in response to stressors s.a physical or chemical injury, UV light, radiation, or damage due to temperature extremes (e.g a burn) microorganisms, Ox or nutrient deprivation, genetic defects
Inflammation response: any condition ending in suffix "itis"
what are the 4 classic signs of inflammation?
redness, heat, swelling and pain
vasoconstriction occurs to prevent the access of what?
mast cells release what when stimulated by cellular damage?
histamine, heparin and protaglandins
when histamine, heparin and prostaglandins are released by mast cells, what happens?
vasodilation, which leads to hyperemia which leads to redness, heat and increase in filtration pressure
capillary permeability increase leads to increase in what?
local edema, then swelling and pain
what happens when capillaries increase in permeability as an inflammatory response?
harmful substances are diluted, oxygen and nutrients are brought in as well as clotting proteins
describe general idea of leukocytosis-inducing factor
KILL CLEAN AND REPAIR: eat up, clean up the place then tissue can begin repair
during leukocytosis inducing factor, what type of WBC's are drawn to the area of infection?
neutrophils (1st responders) and then monocytes and also lymphocytes
when monocytes are in ISF, what do they become?
what do WBCs do at infection site?
phagocytosis: gobble up bacteria, dead cells and debris
What is the job of Eosinophils at infection site?
control inflammatory responses, attack parasites and antigen-antibody complexes
What happens after eosinophils attack parasites and antigen-antibody complexes?
Tissue repair can begin
What does aspirin do?
inhibits synthesis of prostaglandins and thus counteracts inflammatory response
What is the purpose of fever?
maintenance of body temperature
when there is a fever in body, what is happening?
pyrogens released by bacteria or macrophages reset thermostat in hypothalamus
what does a pyrogen do?
released by bacteria or macrophages, pyrogens reset the thermostat in the hypothalamus and cause a fever
what part of the brain is the regulator for temperature and homeostasis of the body in general?
Name important things fever does in fighting infection?
heats the body up, cooks bacteria! Critters are DENATURED, being eaten and cooked. Metabolism is accelerated, tissue defenses are mobilized quicker (repair is quicker)
is the adage "feed a cold, starve a fever" true, why or why not?
yes, starve a fever because the body when infected needs all its energy to fight infection, not used for digestion
what's the diff. bet. anorexia and anorexia nervosa?
anorexia nervosa is the disease, anorexia is just typical reduced or loss of appetite, common when you don't feel well, as in feverish.
in feverish body, what cells are killing bacteria?
specifically, Natural Killers are at work
what is danger zone for fever, why?
102-104 degrees because above 105 can cause brain damage. proteins at 109 degrees are denatured, brain damage can occur
what is specific immunity?
1. specificity for foreign antigens, involves distinguishing from self
2. 2nd encounter w/antigen results in faster response due to memory
what is acquired immunity?
acquired over lifetime; not present genetically, result from direct contact w/antigen. 2 types: ACTIVELY ACQUIRED and PASSIVELY ACQUIRED
2 types of actively acquired immunity
1. Naturally Acquired-being sick and developing immunity in response
2.Artificially Aquired or Induced: the vaccine, living but weakened microbes, dead microbes, or detoxified toxins induce antibodies to be formed
What is passively acquired immunity and describe it
there is a direct transfer of actively formed antibodies from one organism to another (s.a through gamma globulins)
What do Gamma Globulins do?
these guys transfer actively formed antibodies from one organism to another.
In passively acquired immunity, are the effects permanent?
No. Only temporary.
What are the two types of Passively Acquired Immunity?
Natural and Induced.
Describe Natural Passive Immunity
pregnant women can pass on IgG's across placenta to fetus or in breast milk to baby
Describe Induced Passive Immunity
In this type of Passive Immunity, the administration of antibodies occurs
how do vaccines work? they are an example of what type of immunity?
weakened or mostly dead pathogens put into body, body fights them and you develop the immunity. This is an example of actively acquired immunity.
Give an example of natural passively acquired immunity?
Mother passes IgG's across placenta to fetus, or in breast milk to baby.
Give an example of induced passively acquired immunity?
Administration of antibodies
Give an example of innate specific immunity?
Dogs are born with immunity to people diseases, such as colds, flus, etc.
If immunity is Actively Acquired, what has to happen?
Contact with antigen
If you have direct contact with an antigen by getting a flu virus and develop immunity to that strain, what type of immunity is this?
Naturally acquired innate immunity
If you get a flu shot, and develop antibodies to that strain of flu, what type of immunity is this?
Artificially acquired or Induced
If a breast-feeding mother passes antibodies on to her baby, what kind of immunity is this?
Natural passive. Only temporary!
If your doctor prescribes antibiotics to kill off a bacterial infection, what kind of temporary immunity is this?
Induced passive immunity
T and B lymphocytes develop where?
red bone marrow and thymus
what do T and B lymphocytes do when you have an infection?
during maturation, they produce specific antigen receptors which are embeddded in the cell membranes as well as specific "self" proteins
As T and B lymphocytes circulate, they respond to what?
If you develop antibody to snake venom or spider venom, or receive botulism shots, what kind of immunity is this?
Passively Acquired, Artificial/Induced Immunity
where do T and B lymphocytes mature?
T in Thymus, B in Bone
when T and B lymphocytes come out of bone are they mature?
they are mature but "green" they circulate and look for critters
What do T cells do when they find a critter?
Envelop the cell partially, in disguise
What do B cells do?
Float through blood
Name the two main types of T cells
T4, a.k.a CD4 cells, a.k.a T Helper Cells
and T8, a.k.a CD8 Cytotoxic T Cells
Describe T4 and T8, their functions and differences
T4 are the generals, they make decisions about how to attack, the T8 are the soldiers, do the actual killing
Describe how T lymphocytes find their calling in life
They wander about then see a cell w/S.S.S banner "HELP!" They have to encounter this diseased cell to mature. They go INTO the cell.
When T and B lymphocytes develop in bone, they produce specific WHAT embedded WHERE? As they circulate in blood, they respond to what?
They respond to specific ANTIGENS that they have developed antigen receptors for, which are embedded in their cell membranes.
What is MHC (Major Histiocompatibility Complex?
address of the cell, every tissue and cell in the body has this
What do Cytotoxic T Cells do?
Release Perforin which perforates cell causing lysing or bursting of cell
what is lymphotoxin?
cytotoxic T cells can release this poison and inject it to stumulate apoptosis
what are three things Cytotoxic T cells do to destroy cells?
1. perforin release punch holes in cell causing lysing
2. stimulate apoptosis, cell death
3. release poison, lymphotoxin, causing bursting of cell
What is another function of Cytotoxic T Cells?
Release Memory Cells
What do memory cells do?
1. react very quickly to bad stuff the next time they see it; they remember!
What do T Suppressor Cells do?
Stop autoimmune disease; prevent us from beating up on ourselves (stop immune fighters from doing their thing; enough is enough!) Negative feedback.
The type of immunity where Killer T lymphocytes defend against abnormal cellas and pathogens inside living cells is called?
cell mediated immunity (these are similar to NK cells)
In Humeral Immunity, describe what happens
B lymphocytes wander about and don't mature until they encounter a critter. Then B grabs an antigen and hold it, T4 cells come in to help. (like one cop holding onto a bad guy while the other cops come in for back-up. B cell puts a little piece of antigen into cell as a disguise then a whole army of these cells are cloned and made to go after all the bad guys.
What are the cells called that B lymphocytes make with antibodies that are going to do all the killing of bad guy invasion?
What other cells do B cells make?
Memory Cells, so they can remember this invasion and react quickly next time this type of pathogen tries to invade again.
the first time you encounter a disease?
The second time you encounter a disease/pathogen?
Immunoglobins, IG Cells are in 5 categories, name them!
1. IgA-A for Aqua: found in liquid, watery parts of body s.a blood, ISF, ICF, Stress destroys IgA, which is why you get sick easier when under stress.
2. IgD-D is for Delivery of Activation -activates B cells, antigen receptors, memory response
3. IgM-M is for Murder (of cells) and Mega (size)! -activates complement. Huge cells. Cell lysis; phagocytosis
4. IgE-E is for Excessive & Eosinophils, how your body reacts to allergies. What happens? Release of basophils to deal with hypersensitivity reactions, launch immune response. Also protects against EEEK, worms s.a tapeworms, giardia, etc.
5. IgG- G is for Goo Goo Ga Ga (what baby says) IgG can cross placenta; immunity to baby pre and post birth.
How specifically do immunoglobins mess with antigens to make them ineffective so they can't cause problems?
Immunoglobins bind to the antigen so it can't go anywhere and cause problems, then eosinophils come along and gobble them up like Pac Man.
Another way immunoglobins make antigens ineffective?
They can jump on them and make them sticky, so they aren't effective, then eosinophil comes along and gobbles them up!
What is OPSINIZATION?
Opsinization: another way immunoglobins mess up antigens so they can't hurt us. Requires activations of complement which attracts phagocytes.
antigen can't bind to a cell, prevents adhesion
acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome
Human Immunodeficiency virus
retro virus/RNA, made of RNA
plugs into DNA chain in order to replicate
what is the primary target of HIV virus?
does having HIV mean you have AIDS?
No. It targets immune cells, T4 but also T8
How are Immune Cells Destroyed in AIDS?
go after T4 first
How are immune cells destroyed in AIDS?
go after T4 first; targets immune cells and kills immunity, it's a very smart virus; can put MHCs on macrophages
can you live with AIDS
not really, but you are killed by something else, s.a pneumonia because your immune system doesn't work
In HIV, retro virus is made up of?
In HIV, RNA plugs into DNA chain in order to do what?
What is the primary target in HIV?
what is karposi sarcoma?
a cancer that targets T4 cells, kills people w/AIDS
AIDS can also target and kill what kind of cells?
Memory cells, resulting in AIDS patients getting diseases they've already had
What does the term "opportunistic infection" mean?
AIDS, infects during specific times, takes the opportunity to infect people: blood transfusions, sharing needles, and blood-blood, blood-semen, blood-vaginal secretions, and semen-vaginal secretions
Can moms give AIDS to babies during birth?
yes, if blood and blood mix, but not before birth--AIDS does not cross placenta
In allergies, what immunoglobin is working?
What other cells are working during allergies?
Mast cells, histomine and heparine
histomine causes what
heparine leads to what disorder?
what do leukotrienes do during allergy?
sm muscle constriction, cause
trachea and bronchii to close up
what does an overactive immune system cause?
formation of antibodies to substances not usually thought to be foreign or a threat: allergies
IgE is secreted by what kind of cells and binds to what kinds of cells
secreted by B cells and binding to mast cells
Antigen and mast cells (with IgE on membrane( create?
histamine stimulates what response and causes constriction of what?
constriction of airways
What is shock?
A sudden reduction in blood pressure
what is anaphyllactic shock
excessive fluid loss into the interstitial compartment due to an allergic reaction; s.a bee stings.
smooth muscle contraction
What is MHC
Major histocompatible complex
When tissues are rejected, why, and what happens?
There are 12 types of MHC, donar and recipient must have 6 in common at least, in order to donate kidney, etc.
What happens when tissues are rejected?
They are destroyed by body's immune system without immunosuppresant drugs.
what drug can you take when you have an allergic reaction and your airways are closing?
Benadryl (if reaction is severe, get to a hospital, but Benadryl can buy you time)
when you are in shock due to allergies, what happens in capillaries?
permeable; blood vessels vasodilate, blood pressure drops. Blood drains from top of head down to heart, which is why people go pale w/shock. We don't have enough blood for vasodilation and everything else.
What is the only tissue that can be donated w/out drugs, or problems?
Immuno drugs taken when you are the recipient of a donated organ make you more susceptible to what?
colds, etc. because your immune system is weaker.
when you need a new pancreas because the old one isn't producing enough insulin, do you remove the old pancreas?
No. You place the new pancreas in the ileum. Kidneys can be put here too because it is less invasive than going through all the viscera of the thoracic cavity
What is myasthenia gravis?
antibodies destroy muscle receptors where AcH is received so muscles cannot contract. Life expectancy: 18-20 years old. Genetic.
Are most autoimmune diseased genetic?
What autoimmune disease is thought to have been caught by a critter in childhood and stays dormant until around 30 yrs old?
M.S Multiple Sclerosis.
What happens in M.S?
Immune cells attacked, myelin sheath is eaten as immune cells are sought after.