Body system that consists of the bones, joints, connective tissue, and muscles.
Bones consisting of the skull, spine, ribs and sternum.
Bones consisting of the upper and lower extremities, including the pelvic and shoulder girdles.
Of, relating to, or affecting muscular and tendinous tissue.
Point where two bones connect.
A fluid that lubricates the smooth cartilage in joints.
Fibrous protein that forms tough connective tissue.
Section of a control system that serves as a regulatory mechanism; return input as some of the output.
Elastic fibrous protein found in connective tissue.
A firm, elastic, flexible, white material found at the ends of ribs, between vertebrae (discs), at joint surfaces, and in the nose and ears.
High-impact, rapid, jerking movements.
In front or in the front part
In front and below
In front and to the side, especially the outside
In front and toward the inner side or midline
Relating to both front and rear
Below in relation to another structure; inferior
Above in relation to anotherstructure; higher, superior
Pertaining or relating to the opposite side
Beneath or below the surface; used to describe relative depth or location of muscles or tissue
Situated away from the center or midline of the body, or away from the point of orgin.
Relating to the back; posterior
Below in relation to another structure;caudal
On the same side
On or to the side; outside, farther from the median or midsagittal plane
Relating to the middle or center; nearer to the medial or midsagittal plan
Behind, in back, or in the rear
Behind and below; in back and below
Behind and to one side, specifically to the outside
Behind and to the inner side
Behind and at the upper part
The body lying face downward; stomach lying
Nearest the trunk or the point of origin
Near the surface; used to describe relative depth or location of muscles or tissue
(supra) above in relation to another structure; higher, cephalic
Lying on the back; face upward position of the body
Relating to the belly or abdomen
Relation to palm of the hand or sole of the foot
The proximal attachment; generally considered the least moveable part or the part that attaches closest to the midline or center of the body.
The distal attachment; generally considered the most moveable part or the part that attaches furthest from the midline or center of the body.
The elements of the muscle that actually shorten upon contraction; made up mainly of two types of protein: actin and myosin.
Short, thick contractile filaments.
Long, think contractile filaments.
Voluntary muscles tissues
Receives nerve fibers from the somatic nervous system that can be voluntarily controlled. (e.g., skeletal muscles)
Involuntary muscle tissues
Receive nerve fibers from the autonomic nervous system and cannot be voluntarily controlled, except in a few rare cases. (e.g., the heart)
Special sense organs that measure the strain in the muscle and can be used to pre-set the tension of muscles.
Tiny fibrils that make up a single muscle fiber.
Jelly-like intracellular fluid found in the muscle fiber.
Sliding filament theory
Theory stating that a myofibril contracts by the actin and myosin filaments sliding over each other.
A contraction in which the muscle develops tension but does not shorten.
A contraction in which the muscle shortens but retains constant tension.
A contraction in which a muscle shortens and overcomes a resistance.
A contraction in which a muscle lengthens and is overcome by a resistance.
A byproduct of glucose and glycogen metabolism (glycolysis) in anaerobic muscle energetics.
Muscle fiber type that contracts quickly and is used most in intensive, short-duration exercises.
A muscle fiber characterized by its slow speed of contraction and a high capacity for aerobic glycolysis.
A slow-twitch muscle fiber that generates ATP predominantly through the aerobic system of energy transfer.
A fast-twitch fiber subdivision characterized by a fast shortening speed and well-developed capacity for energy transfer from aerobic and anaerobic sources.
A fast-twitch fiber subdivision characterized by the most rapid shortening velocity and greatest anaerobic potential.
A fast-twitch fiber that results from the 'fusion' of Type IIb with surrounding satellite cells.
Size Principle of Fiber Recruitment
Principle stating that fibers with a high level of reliability are recruited first; those with lower levels of reliability are recruited last.
Concept stating that a unit is either completely relaxed or fully contracted; it is never partly contracted.
A built-in protective function of the neuromuscular system in the muscle spindle.
Specialized sensory receptors located in tendons and muscles sensitive to stretch, tension, and pressure.
The science of the structure of the human body.
The science concerned with the normal vital processes of animal and vegetable organisms.
ATP: Adenosine triphosphate
An energy-storing compound found in cells, which release energy when needed by the body.
CP: Creatine phosphate
a high-energy phosphate molecule that is stored in cells and can be used to immediately resynthesize ATP.
Organic acid generally found in the muscle as phosphocreatine (creatine phosphate) that supplies energy for muscle contraction.
An increase in the cross-sectional size of a muscle in response to strength training.
An increase in size and number of tiny blood vessels surrounding cells.
An increase in number of cells in a tissue or organ, excluding tumor formation, whereby bulk of the part or organ may be increased.