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Martha Sharma, Deblij

Age Distribution

One back-to-back bar graph, showing the number of males and showing females in a particular population in five-year age groups.

Carry capacity

This is the population level that can be supported, given the quantity of food, habitat, water and other life infrastructure present.

Cohort

Population of various age categories in an age-sex population pyramids.

Demographic momentum

this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution.

Demographic Regions

Cape Verde is in Stage 2 (High Growth), Chile is in Stage 3 (Moderate Growth), and Denmark is in Stage 4 (Low Growth). This is important because it shows how different parts of the world are in different stages of the demographic transition.

Demographic Transition model

Has 4 steps. Stage 1 is low growth (low stationary), Stage 2 is High Growth (early expanding), Stage 3 is Moderate Growth (late expanding), and Stage 4 is Low Growth (low stationary), and Stage 5 although not officially a stage is a possible stage that includes zero or negative population growth. This is important because this is the way our country and others countries around the world are transformed from a less developed country to a more developed country.

Dependency Ratio

The number of people who are too young too old to work compared to the number of people in there productive years.

Diffusion of fertility control

the spread of fertility control in an area.

Disease Diffusion

There are two types, contagious and hierarchical. Hierarchical is along high density areas that spread from urban to rural areas. Contagious is spread through the density of people.

Doubling Time

The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.

Ecumene

The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.

Epidemiological transition model

This is a distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition.

Gendered space

knowledge about using space from a male and female angle, to determine how females may be restricted in use of public and private spaces compared to males

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

The annual # of deaths of infants under one year of age, compared with total live births. Expressed as # of deaths among infants per 1000 birth.

J-curve

When the projection population show exponential growth

Maladaption

This is an adaptation that has become less helpful than harmful.

Malthus, Thomas

Was one of the first to argue that the worlds rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food population. This is important because he brought up the point that we may be outrunning our supplies because of our exponentially growing population.

Mortality

There are two useful ways to measure mortality; infant mortality rate and life expectancy. The IMR reflect a country's health care system and life expectancy measures the average number of years a baby can expect to live.

Natality

(Crude Birth Rate) This is the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; it is expressed as number of birth in year to every 1000 people alive in the society.

Neo-malthusian

theory that builds upon Malthus' thoughts on overpopulation. Takes into count two factors that Malthus did not: population growth in LDC's, and outstripping of resources other than food

Overpopulation

the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living

Population densities

the frequency with which something occurs in space

Physiological density

The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.

Agricultural density

The ratio if the number of farmers to the total amount of farmland

Population distribution

the arrangement of a feature in space. The three main properties are density, concentration, and pattern

Population explosion

a sudden increase or burst in the population in either a certain geographical area

Population projection

predicts the future population of an area or the world.

Population pyramid

A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.

Rate of natural increase

the percentage by which a population grows in a year.

S-curve

relates to growth and decline in the natural increase

Sex ratio

the number of males per hundred females in the population

Standard of living

refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way they are distributed within a population

Sustainability

the ability to meet humanities current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs

Underpopulation

it is the opposition to overpopulation and refers to a sharp drop or decrease in a region's population

Zero population growth

when the birth rate equals the death rate and the natural increase rate approaches zero

Activity space

space used for a certain industry or activity

Chain Migration

migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there

Cyclic Movement

seasonal and nomadism. Leave a place, but return

Distance Decay

The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.

Forced Migration

Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.

Gravity model

A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.

Internal Migration

Permanent movement within a particular country.

Intervening Opportunity

an environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that helps migration

Intercontinental

Permanent movement from one country to a different country

inter-regional

Permanent movement from one region of the country to another

Rural-Urban

Permanent movement from suburbs and rural area to the urban city area

Migratory Movement

Describes human movement from a source to a destination without a return journey

Periodic Movement

movement that involves temporary, recurrent relocation

Personal space

"bubble"

Place Utility

the desirability of a place based on its social, economic and environmental situation. Often used to compare the value of living in different locations.

Push-Pull Factors

Factors that induce people to leave old residence and move to new locations.

Refugee

People forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in social group, or political opinion.

Space-Time Prism

The set of all points that can be reached by an individual given a maximum possible speed from a starting point in space-time and an ending point in space-time.

Step Migration

a series of small, less extreme location changes are steps

Transhumance

The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.

Voluntary migration

when you leave a place on your own terms

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