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It is about +13 kcal/mol.

For the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP + Pi, the free energy change is -7.3 kcal/mol under standard conditions (1 M concentration of both reactants and products). In the cellular environment, however, the free energy change is about -13 kcal/mol. What can we conclude about the free energy change for the formation of ATP from ADP and Pi under cellular conditions?

an agent that closely mimics the structure of glucose but is not metabolized

Which kind of metabolic poison would most directly interfere with glycolysis?

removal of electrons from chlorophyll molecules

Which process is most directly driven by light energy?

mitochondrial inner membrane

Where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located?

food → NADH → electron transport chain → oxygen

During aerobic respiration, electrons travel downhill in which sequence?

It is an allosteric enzyme.

Phosphofructokinase is an important control enzyme in the regulation of cellular respiration. Which of the following statements correctly describes phosphofructokinase activity?

A substrate

A series of enzymes catalyze the reaction X → Y → Z → A. Product A binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y at a position remote from its active site. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme.
What is substance X?

The redox reactions of the electron transport chain are directly coupled to the movement of protons across a membrane.

Which one of the following statements about the redox reactions of the electron transport chain is correct?

to test for liberation of O2 in the light.

Some photosynthetic organisms contain chloroplasts that lack photosystem II, yet are able to survive. The best way to detect the lack of photosystem II in these organisms would be

The basic function of the light reactions of photosynthesis is the conversion of solar energy to chemical energy

Select the most accurate statement describing the basic function of the light reactions of photosynthesis.

NADH, FADH2, and O2

Which of the following is the combination of substances that is initially added to the electron transport chain?

The bacteria would be relatively evenly distributed along the algal filaments

Theodor W. Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that passed through a prism, thus exposing different segments of algae to different wavelengths of light. He added aerobic bacteria and then noted in which areas the bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest groups were found in the areas illuminated by the red and blue light.
If you ran the same experiment without passing light through a prism, what would you predict?

stroma of the chloroplast

Where does the Calvin cycle take place?

retained in the two pyruvates.

During glycolysis, when each molecule of glucose is catabolized to two molecules of pyruvate, most of the potential energy contained in glucose is

an allosteric inhibitor

A series of enzymes catalyze the reaction X → Y → Z → A. Product A binds to the enzyme that converts X to Y at a position remote from its active site. This binding decreases the activity of the enzyme.
With respect to the enzyme that converts X to Y, substance A functions as

It uses stored ATP and then forms a net increase in ATP.

Why is glycolysis described as having an investment phase and a payoff phase?

The last reaction in the citric acid cycle produces a product that is a substrate for the first reaction of the citric acid cycle

Which statement about the citric acid cycle is correct?

NADH and pyruvate

In addition to ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis?

They use light energy to drive the synthesis of organic molecules from inorganic materials

Plants are photoautotrophs. What does this mean?

The Calvin cycle has three phases: carbon fixation, reduction, and regeneration of RuBP.

Select the correct statement about the Calvin cycle.

3 ATP, 6 CO2, 9 NADH, and 3 FADH2

Starting with citrate, which of the following combinations of products would result from three acetyl CoA molecules entering the citric acid cycle (see the figure)?

neither photosynthesis nor respiration

The splitting of carbon dioxide to form oxygen gas and carbon compounds occurs during

both oxidize and reduce during electron transport

In metabolic processes of cell respiration and photosynthesis, prosthetic groups such as heme and iron-sulfur complexes are encountered in components of the electron transport chain. What do they do?

The are inversely related

What is the relationship between wavelength of light and the quantity of energy per photon?

Both oxaloacetate and citric acid will decrease.

If pyruvate oxidation is blocked, what will happen to the levels of oxaloacetate and citric acid in the citric acid cycle shown in the figure?

splitting water molecules

When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a direct by-product of

They consume energy to build up polymers from monomers.

Which of the following is (are) true for anabolic pathways?

anabolic reactions

Which of the following types of reactions would decrease the entropy within a cell?

catabolism

Which term most precisely describes the cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones?

blue and violet

A plant has a unique photosynthetic pigment. The leaves of this plant appear to be reddish yellow. What wavelengths of visible light are being absorbed by this pigment?

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