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Development of the tongue

begins at 4 1/2 weeks of embryonic life.

The tongue starts to develop as

a swelling that arises out of the back part of the pharyngeal arches.

Anterior 2/3rd of the tongue develops from the

ectoderm

Posterior 1/3rd of the tongue develops from the

endoderm

Muscles of the tongue arise from the

mesoderm

The muscles of the tongue are skeletal muscles or

voluntary striated muscles

Intrinsic muscles of the tongue

start and end inside the tongue.

*Extrinsic muscles of the tongue

start outside and run into the tongue.

Intrinsic-Superior longitudinal group:

runs from anterior to posterior. Lies near dorsum of the tongue.

Intrinsic-Inferior longitudinal group:

runs anterior to posterior. Lies near bottom or vent rum of the tongue.

Intrinsic-Transverse group:

funs from side to side

Intrinsic-Vertical group:

runs from dorsal to central surface of tongue (stands up).

*Extrinsic muscles

1) Hyoglossus
*2) Styloglossus
*3) Palatoglossus
*4) Genioglossus

Circumvallate papillae

V-shaped row of about 13 circular raised papillae. Located about 2/3rd of the way back on the tongue with the point of the V facing posteriorly.
This divides the tongue into anterior 2/3rd and posterior 1/3rd. It CONTAINS taste buds. Has von Ebner glands.

von Ebner glands

small salivary glands present beneath the circumvallate papillae.

Fungiform papillae

present on the anterior 2/3rd of the tongue. They CONTAINS taste buds.

Filiform papillae

present on the anterior 2/3rd of the tongue. They DO NOT contain taste buds. They provide tactile sensation.

Foliate papillae

present on the lateral surface of the tongue. They contain a FEW taste buds.

Hairy tongue

long papillae on the tongue that can trap food and pigmentations. Mainly filiform and fungiform.

Glossitis (inflammation)

papillae loose epithelium and the tongue becomes smooth (vitamin deficiencies).

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