Middle East

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40 terms · Turkey, Egypt, Iran, and Israel

Islam, Christianity, Judaism

...

Scholarship during Middle Ages; music theorists

Arabic scholars found Ancient Greek music theory which also influenced European Music

Ottoman Empire (13th-20th Centuries)

Turkish dynasty that ruled over west asia, eastern europe, and northern africa

Istanbul, Constantinople, Byzantium

...

MUEZZIN

single male calling to prayer (starts it in the minaret)

MINARET

Tall thin towers: from here people (muezzin) indicates the prayer and brings everyone to prayer

KA'BA

Holiest shrine (mosque)

Mecca

Mecca is the holy city and the hajj is to mecca

MIHRAB

a niche in the wall that indicates where Mecca is

KORAN

Islam's holy book

Muhammad (570-632)

Muslim prophet spread religion of Islam

ADHAN

Islamic call to prayer

HAJJ

The pilgrimage from Medina to Mecca

UD

Fretless plucked pear shaped lute (the origin of other lutes)
Ud--pipa--biwa

BUZUQ

creates intermittent drones; lute with rounded body and nylon frets

MAKAM

Arabic Turkish mode/system of rules and expectations for composition and improv

IQA-AT

Islamic music and rhythmic modes
- about 6-8 standard modes

1) Non-music
2) Legitimate Music
3) Controversial Music
4) Illegitimate Music

...

HARAM

Prohibited, forbidden, sinful

SANTUR

Hammered zither from persian classical tradition; very important
hardwood (like piano)

DATSGAH

a particular scale/ mode of piece of work

GUSHEH

Each datsgah has certain gusheh to it (characteristics)

RADIF

All of the datsgah (scales, modes)

TAKHT ensemble

Arabic music ensemble w/ zithers,bowed and plucked lutes, drums, aerophones, and at times, non trad. instruments

KANUN

Plucked zither used in music traditions
-used in Takht ensembles
very complex

NEY

End-blown notch flute/ very common

TABLA (DARABUKKA)

Goblet drum with single head (unrelated to Indian drums)

SUFISM

Mystical branch of Islam
-person can become one with Allah
-Wool (robes: 2 sets black and white)
-Music and chants very important

DERVISH

"beggar" Monks who relay on the public to survive
-musicians as well and go to rituals to play

DHIKR

Sufi ritual where people chant "allah" to enter an ecstatic state
"remembrance"

Modulation (Maqam or Dastgah shift)

change in tone- go to new scale (mode)

UD--PIPA--BIWA

Middle east lute--China--Japan

UD--LUTE--GUITAR

Middle East--Europe--Americas/europe

KANUN--QIN--KOTO

Middle east plucked zither--China--Japanese

SANTUR--PIANO (?)

The hammered zither

Site 1: Islamic "Call to Prayer" - Turkey

Single vocalist (muezzin)
Melismatic

Site 2: Arabic Instrumental Modal Improvisation - Turkey

Improv with ud and buzuq
Middle Eastern "sounding"/ the Mummy
With guitar

Site 3: DASTGAH for SANTUR and Voice - Turkey

Higher pitched santur - free rhythm
Melancholy Melismas/ minor w/ ornamentation
Vocalist enters halfway through

Site 4: Islamic Song with TAKHT Instrumental Accompaniment

Background noise
Single male vocals: melismatic
Graceful (belly dance?)
Steady beat/pulse

Site 5: Sufi DHIKR Ceremony

Swirling (group of males chanting)
Allah refrain again and again
Unison until single male melisma

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