Plants (SAT II Review)

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Gymnosperm

Tracheophytes that have seeds and cones, but no flowers

Angiosperm

Tracheophytes that have seeds and flowers, but no cones

Monocot

Type of angiosperm with parallel veins, vascular bundles, fibrous roots, leaves in threes

Dicot

Type of angiosperm with networked leaf veins, vascular rings, tap roots, leaves in fives

Example of monocot

Three leaf clover

Example of dicot

Maple leaf and rose

Non-Tracheophytes

Plants without vascular tissue

Vascular

Refers to blood vessels, but transport vessels in the case of plants

Example of non-tracheophyte

Moss

Xylem

Type of vascular tissue in plants that carries water and minerals up from roots; made of vessel elements and tracheids

Phloem

Type of vascular tissue in plants that carries nutrients from leaves and any other photosynthesizing cell downwards; composed of companion cells and sieve-2 members

Tracheophytes

Plants with vascular tissue

Sclerenchyma

Elongated dead cells used for support

Collenchyma

Living elongated cells used for support; generally used in young plants or in the growing parts of plants

Parenchyma

Everything else; tissue that's performing metabolic functions in the plant

Cortex

Specialized type of parenchyma cell between vascular tissue and outside of a stem

Pith

Specialized type of parenchyma cell at the center of the stem

Epidermal cells

Top and bottom layer of cells on a leaf; secretes a waxy cuticle onto the surface of the leaf; makes the leaf waterproof

Stomata

Pores on the bottom of a leaf that help plants undergo gas exchange (water vapor and oxygen leave, CO2 comes in)

Primary growth

Vertical growth (lengthening of a plant)

Secondary growth

Horizontal growth

Meristem

Any region of the plant where this rapid cell division is happening

Apical meristem

Tissue where primary growth is occurring

Vascular cambium

Type of meristematic tissue located between xylem and phloem that makes xylem and phloem

Cork cambium

Tissue located towards the outside of a tree trunk; makes bark

Auxin

Hormone in plants responsible for promoting general growth and plant behaviors

Plant behaviors

Tropisms

Cytokinin

Hormone in plants responsible for tissue differentiation and breaking seed dormancy (wakes a seed up when the conditions are right for it to begin germination)

Gibberellins

Hormone in plants that promotes rapid growth in the early life of a plant; also promotes the growth involved in germination

Abscisic acid

Hormone in plants that promotes dormancy (EX: causes the leaves to fall off in the winter)

Ethylene gas

Hormone in plants responsible for fruit ripening (fruit releases this gas and it causes the fruit to ripen)

Phototropism

A plant growing towards a light source; auxin causes cells on the dark side of the plant to elongate towards the light

Gravitropism

Describes plants growing either with or against gravity

Positive gravitropism

Growing with gravity (downwards)

Negative gravitropism

Growing opposite gravity (upwards)

Example of positive gravitropism

Vines

Thigmotropism

Plants growing towards touch (EX: a vine wrapping around a tree; must be constantly in contact with it)

Photoperiodism

Describes in what conditions plants will flower

Long day plants

Only flowers in 12+ hours of sunlight

Short day plants

Only flower in less than 12 hours of sunlight

Day-neutral plants

Flower all the time

First phase of life cycle

Begin with diploid sporophyte

Second phase of life cycle

Diploid sporophyte produces haploid spores by meiosis

Third phase of life cycle

Spore develops by mitosis into a multicellular organism called the gametophyte

Fourth phase of life cycle

Gametophyte produces many haploid gametes (male and female, sperm and ovum respectively) by mitosis

Fifth phase of life cycle

Haploid gametes fuse in the process of fertilization to form the diploid zygote

Sixth phase of life cycle

Zygote forms by mitosis into a new diploid sporophyte

Sporophyte dominant

Condition of most plants; sporophyte is much bigger and longer lasting than the gametophyte (spends more time being a sporophyte than a gametophyte)

Gametophyte dominant example

Non-tracheophytes

Sporophyte dominant example

Tracheophytes

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