The notion that the Constitution grants to the federal government only those powers specifically names in its text.
A general term for funds given by Congress to state and local governments
Power delegated by the state to a local unit of government to manage its own affairs.
Grants-in-aid in which a formula is used to determine the amount of federal funds a state or local government will receive.
Powers derived from the tenth amendment to the Constitution, that are not specifically delegated to the national government or denied to the states.
Federal funds given to state governments yo pay for goods, services, and programs with relatively few restrictions on how the funds may be spent.
The condition in American government wherein the presidency is controlled by one party while the opposing party controls one or both houses of Congress.
The preeminent position assigned to the Congress by the Constitution.
State Sovereign Immunity
Legal doctrine that holds that states cannot be sued for violating acts of Congress.
System of government in which power is divided by a constitution between a central government and regional government.
A system of rule in which formal and effective limits are placed on the power of the government.
Grant programs in which state and local governments submit proposals to federal agencies and for which funding is provided on a competitive basis.
The system of government that prevailed in the U.S. from 1789-1937 in which most fundamental governmental powers were shared between the federal and state governments.
Supreme and independent political authority.
Powers derived from the necessary and proper clause of Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution. Such powers are not specifically expressed but are implied through the expansive interpretation of delegated powers.
Necessary and Proper Clause
Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which enumerates the powers of Congress and provides Congress with the authority to make all laws "necessary and proper" to carry them out; also referred to as the 'elastic clause'.
Power reserved to the government to regulate the health, safety, and morals of its citizens.
Authority possessed by both state and national governments; such as the power to levy taxes.
Full Faith and Credit Clause
Provision from Article IV, Section I, of the Constitution requiring that the states normally honor the public acts and judicial decisions that take place in another state.
Privileges and Immunities Clause
Provision from Article IV, Section 2, of the Constitution that a state cannot discriminate against someone from another state or give its own residents special privileges.
Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which delegates to Congress the power "to regulate Commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes." This clause was interpreted by the Supreme Court in favor of national power over the economy.
A type of federalism existing since the New Deal era in which grants-in-aid have been used strategically to encourage states and localities (without commanding them) to pursue nationally defined goals. Also known as intergovernmental cooperation.
Funds given by Congress to states and localities, earmarked by law for specific categories such as education or crime prevention.
National standards or programs imposed on state and local governments by the federal government without accompanying funding or reimbursement.
A policy to remove a program from one level of government by deregulating it or passing it down to a lower level of government, such as from the national government to the state and local governments.
The principle that states should oppose increasing authority of the national government. This view was most popular before the Civil War.
Checks and Balances
Mechanisms through which each branch of government is able to participate in and influence the activities of the other branches.
The claim that confidential communications between a president and close advisors should not be revealed without the consent of the president.
Writ of Habeas Corpus
A court order demanding that an individual in custody be brought into court and shown the cause for detention.