Chapter 14-16

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APUSH Chapter 14-16

715. All of the following gave rise to a more dynamic, market-oriented, national economy in early nineteenth-century America except A) the push west in search of cheap land. B) government regulation of all major economic industry. C) a vast number of European immigrants settling in the cities. D) newly invented machinery. E) better roads, faster steamboats, further-reaching canals, and tentacle-stretching railroads.

B

716. Pioneering Americans marooned by geography A) remained well informed despite the barriers. B) grew to depend on other people for most of their clothing. C) abandoned the "rugged individualism" of colonial Americans. D) looked to state governments for economic help. E) became ill informed and individualistic in their attitudes.

E

717. In early-nineteenth-century America, A) the annual population growth rate was much higher than in colonial days. B) the urban population was growing at an unprecedented rate. C) the birthrate was rapidly declining. D) the death rate was increasing. E) the center of population moved northward.

B

718. The dramatic growth of American cities between 1800 and 1860 A) led to a lower death rate. B) contributed to a decline in the birthrate. C) resulted in unsanitary conditions in many communities. D) forced the federal government to slow immigration. E) created sharp political conflict between farmers and urbanites.

C

719. "Ecological imperialism" can best be described as A) the efforts of white settlers to take land from Native Americans. B) the aggressive exploitation of the West's bounty. C) a desire for the United States to acquire California. D) the spread of technology and industry. E) none of the above.

B

720. George Catlin advocated A) placing Indians on reservations. B) efforts to protect America's endangered species. C) continuing the "rendezvous" system. D) keeping white settlers out of the West. E) the preservation of nature as a national policy.

E

721. The influx of immigrants to the United States tripled, then quadrupled, in the A) 1810s and 1820s. B) 1820s and 1830s. C) 1830s and 1840s. D) 1840s and 1850s. E) 1860s and 1870s.

D

722. Ireland's great export in the 1840s was A) people. B) potatoes. C) wool. D) whiskey. E) music.

A

723. The Irish immigrants to early nineteenth-century America A) were mostly Roman Catholics and hated the British. B) tended to settle on western farmlands. C) were warmly welcomed by American workers. D) identified and sympathized with American free blacks. E) were often members of the Irish Republican Army.

A

724. When the Irish flocked to the United States in the 1840s, they stayed in the larger seaboard cities because they A) preferred urban life. B) were offered high-paying jobs. C) were welcomed by the people living there. D) were too poor to move west and buy land. E) had experience in urban politics.

D

725. When the "famine Irish" came to America, they A) moved to the West. B) mostly became farmers. C) moved up the economic ladder quickly. D) mostly remained in the port cities of the Northeast. E) formed alliances with Yankees against the Germans.

D

726. Native-born Protestant Americans distrusted and resented the Irish mostly because these immigrants A) were poor. B) were thought to love alcohol. C) were Roman Catholic. D) frequently became police officers. E) were slow to learn English.

C

727. German immigrants in the early nineteenth century tended to A) settle in eastern industrial cities. B) assimilated themselves well into American culture . C) become slave-owners. D) join the temperance movement. E) preserve their own language and culture.

E

728. German immigrants to the United States A) quickly became a powerful political force. B) came to escape economic hardships and autocratic government. C) were as poor as the Irish. D) contributed little to American life. E) were almost all Roman Catholics.

B

729. When German immigrants came to the United States, they A) often became Baptist or Methodists. B) mixed well with other Americans. C) remained mostly in the Northeast. D) prospered with astonishing ease. E) dropped most of their German customs.

D

730. Those who were frightened by the rapid influx of Irish immigrants organized A) the Order of the Star-Spangled Banner. B) the "Molly Maguires." C) Tammany Hall. D) the Ancient Order of Hibernians. E) the Ku Klux Klan.

A

731. The sentiment of fear and opposition to open immigration was called A) the cult of domesticity. B) nativism. C) Unitarianism. D) rugged individualism. E) patriotism.

B

732. Native-born Americans feared that Catholic immigrants to the United States would A) want to attend school with Protestants. B) overwhelm the native-born Catholics and control the church. C) "establish" the Catholic church at the expense of Protestantism. D) assume control of the "Know-Nothing" party. E) establish monasteries and convents in the West.

C

733. Immigrants coming to the United States before 1860 A) depressed the economy due to their poverty. B) found themselves involved in few cultural conflicts. C) had little impact on society until after the Civil War. D) settled mostly in the South. E) helped to fuel economic expansion.

E

734. The "Father of the Factory System" in the United States was A) Robert Fulton. B) Samuel F. B. Morse. C) Eli Whitney. D) Samuel Slater. E) Thomas Edison.

D

735. Eli Whitney was instrumental in the invention of the A) steamboat. B) cotton gin. C) railroad locomotive. D) telegraph. E) repeating revolver.

B

736. Most of the cotton produced in the American South after the invention of the cotton gin was A) produced by free labor. B) sold to England. C) grown on the tidewater plains. D) consumed by the southern textile industry. E) of the long-staple variety.

B

737. The American phase of the industrial revolution first blossomed A) on southern plantations. B) with textile mills. C) in rapidly growing Chicago. D) with shipbuilding. E) in coal-mining regions.

B

738. As a result of the development of the cotton gin, A) slavery revived and expanded. B) American industry bought more southern cotton than did British manufacturers. C) a nationwide depression ensued. D) the South diversified its economy. E) the textile industry moved to the South.

A

739. The underlying basis for modern mass production was the A) cotton gin. B) musket. C) use of interchangeable parts. D) principle of limited liability. E) passing of protective tariffs.

C

740. The early factory system distributed its benefits A) mostly to the owners. B) evenly to all. C) primarily in the South. D) to workers represented by unions. E) to overseas investors.

A

741. Match each individual below with the correct invention. A. Samuel Morse B. Cyrus McCormick C. Elias Howe D. Robert Fulton 1. telegraph 2. mower-reaper 3. steamboat 4. sewing machine A) A-3, B-1, C-4, D-2 B) A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3 C) A-1, B-4, C-2, D-3 D) A-4, B-2, C-3, D-1 E) A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3

B

742. The American work force in the early nineteenth century was characterized by A) substantial employment of women and children in factories. B) strikes by workers that were few in number but usually effective. C) a general lengthening of the workday from ten to fourteen hours. D) extensive political activity among workers. E) reliance on the system of apprentices and masters.

A

743. One reason that the lot of adult wage earners improved was A) support gained from the United States Supreme Court. B) the passage of minimum wage laws. C) the passage of laws restricting the use of strikebreakers. D) the enactment of immigration restrictions. E) the enfranchisement of the laboring man.

E

744. In the case of Commonwealth v. Hunt, the supreme court of Massachusetts ruled that A) corporations were unconstitutional. B) labor unions were not illegal conspiracies. C) labor strikes were illegal by violating the Fair Labor Acts. D) the Boston Associates employment of young women in their factories was inhumane. E) the state could regulate factory wages and working conditions.

B

745. The "cult of domesticity" A) gave women more opportunity to seek employment outside the home. B) resulted in more pregnancies for women. C) restricted women's moral influence on the family. D) glorified the traditional role of women as homemakers. E) was especially strong among rural women.

D

746. Early-nineteenth-century American families A) were becoming more loosely knit and less affectionate. B) usually included three generations in the same household. C) taught their children to be unquestioningly obedient. D) usually allowed parents to determine choice of marriage partners. E) were getting smaller.

E

747. One of the goals of the child-centered family of the 1800s was to A) raise children who were obedient to authority. B) allow parents to spoil their children. C) raise independent individuals. D) increase the number of children. E) preserve childhood innocence.

C

748. The effect of early-nineteenth-century industrialization on the trans-Allegheny West was to encourage A) specialized, cash-crop agriculture. B) slavery. C) self-sufficient farming. D) heavy industry. E) higher tariffs.

A

749. With the development of cash-crop agriculture in the trans-Allegheny West, A) subsistence farming became common. B) farmers began to support the idea of slave labor. C) farmers quickly faced mounting indebtedness. D) the South could harvest a larger crop. E) the issue of farm surpluses came to the fore.

C

750. In the 1790's a major transportation project linking the East to the trans-Allegheny West was the A) Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. B) National (Cumberland) Road. C) Erie Canal. D) St. Lawrence Seaway. E) Lancaster Turnpike.

E

751. Western road building faced all of the following problems except A) the expense. B) states' rights advocates' opposition. C) eastern states' opposition. D) competition from canals. E) wartime interruptions.

D

752. The major application for steamboats transporting freight and passengers in the United States was on A) New England streams. B) western and southern rivers. C) the Great Lakes. D) the Gulf of Mexico. E) coastal waterways.

B

753. The "canal era" of American history began with the construction of the A) Mainline Canal in Pennsylvania. B) James River and Kanasha Canal from Virginia to Ohio. C) Wabash Canal in Indiana. D) Suez Canal in Illinois. E) Erie Canal in New York.

E

754. Construction of the Erie Canal A) forced some New England farmers to move or change occupations. B) showed how long-established local markets could survive a continental economy. C) helped farmers so much that industrialization was slowed. D) was aided by federal money. E) created political tensions between the Northeast and the Midwest.

A

755. Most early railroads in the United States were built in the A) North. B) Old South. C) lower Mississippi Valley. D) Far West. E) Appalachian Mountains.

A

756. Compared with canals, railroads A) were more expensive to construct. B) transported freight more slowly. C) were generally safer. D) were susceptible to weather delays. E) could be built almost anywhere.

E

757. In the new continental economy, each region specialized in a particular economic activity: the South _________ for export; the West grew grains and livestock to feed _________; and the East _________ for the other two regions. A) raised grain, southern slaves, processed meat B) grew cotton, southern slaves, made machines and textiles C) grew cotton, eastern factory workers, made machines and textiles D) raised grain, eastern factory workers, made furniture and tools E) processed meat, southern slaves, raised grain

C

758. As a result of the transportation revolution, A) division of labor became a thing of the past. B) New Orleans became an even more important port. C) each region in the nation specialized in a particular type of economic activity. D) self-sufficiency became easier to achieve for American families. E) the Midwest became the first industrialized region.

C

759. In general, _________ tended to bind the West and South together, while _________ and _________ connected West to East. A) steamboats, canals, railroads B) railroads, canals, steamboats C) canals, steamboats, turnpikes D) turnpikes, steamboats, canals E) turnpikes, railroads, steamboats

A

760. All of the following were legal questions raised as a result of the new market economy except A) how tightly should patents protect inventions? B) should the government regulate monopolies? C) can a democratic government still support slavery? D) who should own these new technologies? E) who should own the new transportation network?

E

761. As the new continental market economy grew, A) individual households became increasingly self-sufficient. B) the home came to be viewed as a refuge from the workday world. C) traditional women's work became more highly valued and increasingly important. D) respect for women as homemakers declined. E) the home lost most of its importance for family life.

B

762. A major economic consequence of the transportation and marketing revolutions was A) a lessening of the gap between great wealth and poverty. B) a stabilization of the work force in industrial cities. C) the declining significance of American agriculture. D) a steady improvement in average wages and standards of living. E) the growing realization of the "rags-to-riches" American dream.

D

763. America's early-nineteenth-century population was notable for its A) restlessness. B) wastefulness. C) youthfulness. D) aggressiveness. E) thoughtfulness.

A

764. Factors encouraging the growth of immigration rates in the first half of the nineteenth century included the A) rapid growth rate of the European population. B) perception of America as the land of freedom and opportunity. C) introduction of transoceanic steamships. D) economic and political turmoil in Europe. E) religious oppression by European state churches.

A

765. The growth of industry and the factory system in the United States was slowed by A) the high price of land. B) the scarcity of labor. C) limited investment capital. D) a small domestic market. E) weak incentives for new technology.

B

766. The Northeast became the center of early-nineteenth-century American industry because it had A) a superior transportation system. B) abundant water power. C) investment capital available. D) a local supply of raw materials used in manufacturing. E) a relatively large labor supply.

B

767. The growth of early-nineteenth-century American manufacturing was stimulated by the A) War of 1812. B) Peace of Ghent. C) Louisiana Purchase. D) Tariff of 1816. E) rise of the "Know-Nothing" Party.

A

768. By 1850, America's factory system was producing A) textiles. B) boots and shoes. C) firearms. D) steel. E) sewing machines.

A

769. The concentration of capital for investment in large-scale enterprises in the early nineteenth century was promoted by the A) wider acceptance of the principle of limited liability. B) introduction of state corporate tax laws. C) legalization of labor unions. D) passage of state free incorporation laws. E) lowering of the capital gains tax.

A

770. The turnpikes, canals, and steamboats as new transportation links generally encouraged A) lowering of freight rates. B) economic growth. C) rising land values. D) migration of peoples. E) states' rights.

A

771. Clipper ships and the Pony Express had in common A) the use of the most advanced technology. B) speedy service. C) a brief existence. D) low cost. E) support from the federal government.

B

772. Advances in manufacturing and transportation brought A) a narrowing of the gap between rich and poor in America. B) more prosperity and opportunity to most Americans. C) innumerable cases of "rags-to-riches" economic mobility for ordinary Americans. D) increased immigration from Europe to the United States. E) economic reliance on the export of manufactured goods.

B

773. The Deist faith embraced all of the following except A) the concept of original sin. B) the reliance on reason rather than revolution. C) belief in a Supreme Being. D) belief in human beings' capacity for moral behavior. E) denial of the divinity of Jesus.

A

774. Deists like Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin endorsed the concept of A) revelation. B) original sin. C) the deity of Christ. D) a Supreme Being who created the universe. E) the imminent end of the world.

D

775. By 1850, organized religion in America A) retained the rigor of colonial religion. B) was ignored by three-fourths of the people. C) had lost some of its austere Calvinist rigor. D) had grown more conservative. E) had become tied to the upper classes.

C

776. All the following are true of the Second Great Awakening except that it A) resulted in the conversion of countless souls. B) encouraged a variety of humanitarian reforms. C) strengthened democratic denominations like the Baptists and Methodists. D) was a reaction against the growing liberalism in religion. E) was not as large as the First Great Awakening.

E

777. Unitarians endorsed the concept of A) the deity of Christ. B) original sin. C) salvation through good works. D) predestination. E) the Bible as the norm of doctrine.

C

778. An early-nineteenth-century religious rationalist sect devoted to the rule of reason and free will was the A) Unitarians. B) Seventh-Day Adventists C) Methodists. D) Mormons. E) Roman Catholics.

A

779. Religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening resulted in A) little increase in church membership. B) a strong religious influence in many areas of American life. C) surprisingly few humanitarian reforms. D) greater attention to church history and doctrine. E) all of the above.

B

780. As a revivalist preacher, Charles Grandison Finney advocated A) opposition to slavery. B) a perfect Christian kingdom on earth. C) opposition to alcohol. D) public prayer by women. E) all of the above.

E

781. The greatest of the revival preachers of the Second Great Awakening was A) Joseph Smith. B) Horace Greeley. C) Carl Schurz. D) Charles G. Finney. E) Angelina Grimke.

D

782. The Second Great Awakening tended to A) promote religious diversity. B) reduce social class differences. C) blur regional differences. D) discourage church membership. E) weaken women's social position.

A

783. The Mormon religion originated in A) Utah. B) New England. C) Nauvoo, Illinois. D) Ireland. E) the Burned-Over District of New York.

E

784. The religious sects that gained most from the revivalism of the Second Great Awakening were the A) Roman Catholics and Episcopalians. B) Unitarians and Adventists. C) Methodists and Baptists. D) Congregationalists and Presbyterians. E) Lutherans and Mennonites.

C

785. The Second Great Awakening tended to A) widen the lines between classes and regions. B) open Episcopal and Presbyterian churches to the poor. C) unite southern Baptists and southern Methodists against slavery. D) bring the more prosperous and conservative eastern churches into the revivalist camps. E) increase the influence of educated clergy.

A

786. The original prophet of the Mormon religion was A) Ralph Waldo Emerson. B) Brigham Young. C) Charles G. Finney. D) the angel Moroni. E) Joseph Smith.

E

787. Which one of the following is least related to the other four? A) Brigham Young B) William Miller C) The Book of Mormon D) Salt Lake City E) polygamy

B

788. One characteristic of the Mormons that angered many non-Mormons was their A) highly individualistic life-styles. B) unwillingness to vote. C) refusal to take up arms and defend themselves. D) emphasis on cooperative or group effort. E) flirtation with foreign governments.

D

789. Many of the denominational liberal arts colleges founded as a result of the Second Great Awakening A) were academically distinguished institutions. B) lacked much intellectual vitality. C) eventually gained tax-supported status. D) offered a new, nontraditional curriculum. E) opened their doors to Catholic students.

B

790. Tax-supported public education A) existed mainly for the wealthy. B) eliminated private and parochial education in the U.S. C) began in the South as early as 1800. D) provided little opportunity for the poor. E) was deemed essential for social stability and democracy.

E

791. In the first half of the nineteenth century, tax-supported schools were A) chiefly available to educate the children of the poor. B) most in evidence in the South. C) continuously opposed by wealthy, conservative whites. D) open only to tuition-paying children of the well-to-do. E) more academically demanding than private academies.

A

792. Noah Webster's dictionary A) had little impact until the twentieth century. B) helped to standardize the American language. C) was used to educate nineteenth-century slaves. D) came to the United States from Britain in the 1800s. E) gave legitimacy to American slang.

B

793. One strong prejudice inhibiting women from obtaining higher education in the early nineteenth century was the belief that A) they would gain political and economic power through education. B) women were inherently conservative and opposed to social reform. C) children should grow up without the influence of educated women. D) the Constitution prohibited women from attending colleges. E) too much learning would injure women's brains and ruin their health.

E

794. Women became especially active in the social reforms stimulated by the Second Great Awakening because A) evangelical religion emphasized their spiritual dignity and religious social reform legitimized their activity outside the home. B) they refused to accept the idea that there was a special female role in society. C) they were looking to obtain as much power as possible. D) many of the leading preachers and evangelists were women. E) they saw the churches as the first institutions that needed to be reformed.

A

795. Two areas where women in the nineteenth century were widely thought to be superior to men were A) physical strength and mental vigor. B) moral sensibility and artistic refinement. C) political ability and organizational shrewdness. D) sexual appetite and physical desire. E) economic competitiveness and capacity for education.

B

796. New England reformer Dorothea Dix is most notable for her efforts on behalf of A) prison and asylum reform. B) the peace movement. C) the temperance movement. D) abolitionism. E) women's education.

A

797. The excessive consumption of alcohol by Americans in the 1800s A) was not recognized as a social problem. B) did not involve women. C) held little threat for the family because everyone drank. D) had little impact on the efficiency of labor. E) stemmed from the hard and monotonous life of many.

E

798. Sexual differences were strongly emphasized in nineteenth-century America because A) frontier life necessitated these distinctions. B) men were regarded as morally superior beings. C) it was the duty of men to teach the young how to be good, productive citizens D) the market economy increasingly separated men and women into distinct economic roles. E) women believed this emphasis brought them greater respect.

D

799. One sign that women in America were treated better than women in Europe was A) that American women could vote. B) that the law in the U.S. prohibited men from beating them. C) that rape was more severely punished in the U.S. D) that their ideas of equality were well received by American men. E) that American women earned respect by engaging in male activities.

C

800. Neal Dow sponsored the Maine Law of 1851, which called for A) the abolition of capital punishment. B) a ban on war. C) a ban on polygamy. D) woman suffrage. E) a ban on the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquor.

E

801. By the 1850s, the crusade for women's rights was eclipsed by A) the temperance movement. B) the "Lucy Stoners." C) abolitionism. D) prison reform advocates. E) evangelical revivalism.

C

802. According to John Humphrey Noyes, the key to happiness is A) acceptance of a sinful mankind. B) the suppression of selfishness. C) the abandonment of "complex" marriages. D) a rejection of Bible communism. E) political reform.

B

803. The beliefs advocated by John Humphrey Noyes included all of the following except A) no private property. B) sharing of all material goods. C) belief in a vengeful deity. D) strictly monogamous marriages. E) improvement of the human race through eugenics.

D

804. The key to Oneida's financial success was A) its move from Vermont to New York. B) the establishment of Bible communism. C) the manufacture of steel animal traps and silverware. D) its tax-exempt religious status. E) its linkage of religion to free-market capitalism.

C

805. The Oneida colony declined due to A) widespread criticism of its sexual practices. B) a decline in animal trapping. C) their adoption of capitalism. D) the loss of Noyes's leadership. E) all of the above.

A

806. The American medical profession by 1860 was noted for A) its still primitive standards. B) having abandoned the practice of bleeding. C) its discovery of germs as the cause of illness. D) pioneer work in dentistry. E) its well established medical schools.

A

807. Most of the utopian communities in pre-1860s America held _________________________ as one of their founding ideals. A) rugged individualism B) pacifism C) capitalism D) opposition to communism E) cooperative social and economic practices

E

808. Of the following, the most successful of the early-nineteenth-century communitarian experiments was at A) Brook Farm, Massachusetts. B) Oneida, New York. C) New Harmony, Indiana. D) Seneca Falls, New York. E) Shaker Heights, Ohio.

B

809. When it came to scientific achievement, America in the 1800s was A) a world leader. B) a nation from which other countries borrowed. C) most noted for its successes in medicine. D) more interested in practical matters. E) focused primarily on biology and chemistry.

D

810. Match each individual below with the correct description. A. Louis Agassiz B. Gilbert Stuart C. John J. Audubon 1. author of Birds of America 2. portrait artist 3. romantic novelist 4. Harvard biologist A) A-3, B-2, C-4 B) A-4, B-3, C-1 C) A-2, B-1, C-3 D) A-4, B-2, C-1 E) A-1, B-4, C-2

D

811. America's artistic achievements in the first half of the nineteenth century A) were remarkable for their creativity. B) were least notable in architecture. C) built on the achievements of the Puritans. D) took very little from Europe. E) were closely linked to democratic ideals.

B

812. The Hudson River school excelled in the art of painting A) portraits. B) classical Frescos. C) still life. D) daguerreotypes. E) landscapes.

E

813. A genuinely American literature received a strong boost from the A) wave of nationalism that followed the War of 1812. B) writing of Charles Wilson Peale. C) religious writings of the Second Great Awakening. D) federal support for the arts. E) none of the above.

A

814. Match each writer below with his work. A. Washington Irving B. James Fenimore Cooper C. Ralph Waldo Emerson 1. Walden 2. Leatherstocking Tales 3. The Sketch Book, with "Rip Van Winkle" 4. "The American Scholar" A) A-1, B-2, C-3 B) A-3, B-2, C-4 C) A-2, B-3, C-1 D) A-3, B-1, C-4 E) A-4, B-2, C-1

B

815. Transcendentalists believed that all knowledge came through A) the writings of John Locke. B) the senses. C) observation. D) inherent rational capacity. E) an inner light.

E

816. All of the following influenced transcendental thought except A) German philosophers. B) Oriental religions. C) Catholic belief. D) individualism. E) love of nature.

C

817. "Civil Disobedience," an essay that later influenced both Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr., was written by the transcendentalist A) Louisa May Alcott. B) Ralph Waldo Emerson. C) James Fenimore Cooper. D) Margaret Fuller. E) Henry David Thoreau.

E

818. The Poet Laureate of Democracy, whose emotional and explicit writings expressed a deep love of the masses and enthusiasm for an expanding America, was A) Edgar Allan Poe. B) Emily Dickinson. C) Walt Whitman. D) Herman Melville. E) Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

C

819. The most noteworthy southern novelist before the Civil War was A) William Gilmore Simms. B) John C. Calhoun. C) James Russell Lowell. D) Oliver Wendell Holmes. E) William Faulkner.

A

820. One American writer who did not believe in human goodness and social progress was A) James Russell Lowell. B) Henry David Thoreau. C) Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. D) Edgar Allan Poe. E) Walt Whitman.

D

821. Match each writer below with his work. A. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow B. Edgar Allan Poe C. Nathaniel Hawthorne D. Herman Melville 1. The Scarlet Letter 2. Moby Dick 3. "Hiawatha" A) A-3, B-2, C-l B) A-1, B-3, D-2 C) A-1, C-3, D-2 D) B-2, C-1, D-3 E) A-3, C-l, D-2

E

822. Virtually all the distinguished historians of early-nineteenth-century America came from A) the South. B) the middle Atlantic states. C) New England. D) the Midwest. E) the frontier.

C

As a result of the introduction of the cotton gin

slavery was invigorated

Members of the planter aristocracy

dominated society and politics in the South

The following are true of the American economy under the Cotton Kingdom:

cotton accounted for half of all American exports after 1840, the South produced more than half the entires world's supply of cotton, 75% of the British supply of cotton came from the South, quick profits from the cotton drew planters to its economic enterprise.

Plantation agriculture was wasteful largely because

its excessive cultivation of cotton despoiled good land

Plantation mistresses

commanded sizable household staff of mostly female slaves

Plantation agriculture

was economically unstable and wasteful

The plantation system of the Cotton South was

increasingly unstable and wasteful

All of the following were weaknesses of the slave plantation:

it relied on a one-crop economy, it repelled a large-scale European immigration, it stimulated racism among poor whites, it created an aristocratic political elite

German and Irish immigration to the South was discouraged by

competition with slave labor

All told, only about ____ of white southerners owned slaves or belonged to a slaveholding family

1/4

_______ saif the following quote, "I think we must get rid of slavery or we must get rid of freedom."

Ralph Waldo Emerson

As their main crop, southern subsistence farmers raised

corn

Most white southerners were

subsistence farmers

By the mid-nineteenth century,

most slaves lived on large plantations

Most slaves in the South were owned by

plantation workers

The majority of southern whites owned no slaves because

they could not afford the purchase price

The most pro-Union of the white southerners were

mountain whites

Some southern slaves gained freedom as a result of

purchasing their way out of slavery

The great increase of the slave population in the first half of the nineteenth century was largely due to

natural reproduction

Northern attitudes towards free blacks can best be described as

disliking individuals but liking the race

For free blacks living in the North

discrimination was common

The profitable southern slave system

hobbled the economic development of the region as a whole

Regarding work assignments, slaves were

generally spared dangerous works

Perhaps the greatest psychological horror, and the theme of Harriet beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin was

the enforced seperation of slave families

By 1`860, slaves were concentrated in the "black belt" located in the

Deep South states of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana

As a substitute for the wage-incentive system, salveowners most often used the

whip as a motivator

By 1860, life for the slaves was most difficult in the

newer states of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana

Forced seperation of spouses, parents, and children was most common

on small plantations and in the upper South

The following were true of slavery in the South:

slave life on the frontier was harder than that of life in the more settled areas, a distinctive African American slave culture develoepd, a typical planter had too much of his own prosperity riding on the bakcs of his slaves to beat them on a regular basis, by 1860 most slaves were concentrated in the "black belt" of the Deep South

Most slaves were raised

in stable two-parent households

Salves fought the system of slavery in all of the following ways:

slowing down the work pace, sabotaging expensive equipment, pilfering goods that their labor had produced, running away when possible

As a result of white southerners' brutal treatment of their slaves and their fear of potential slave rebellions, the South

developed a theory of biological racial superiority

IN the pre-Civil War South, the most uncommon and least successful form of slave resistance was

armed insurrection

The following are common with each other:

Nat Turner, David Walker, Denmark Vesey, Gabriel (John Quincy Adams is NOT)

The idea of recolonizing blacks to Africa was

supported by the black leader Martin Delaney

Match each abolitionist with his publication:

William Loyed Garrison: The Liberator,
Theodore Dwight Weld: American Slavery as It Is,
Frederick Douglass: Narration of the Life of ...
David Walker: Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World

Arrange the following in chronological order: the founding of the (A) American Colonization Society, (B) American Anti-Slavery Society, (C) Liberty Party

A (1822), B (1833), C (1840)

William Lloyed Garrison pledged his dedication to

the immediate abolition of slavery in the South

Match each abolitionist with his role in the movement:

Wendell Phillips: abolitionist golden trumpet,
Frederick Douglass: black abolitionist
Elijah P. Lovejoy: abolitionist martyr
William Lloyed Garrison: abolitionist newspaper publisher

Many abolitionists turned to political action in 1840 when they backed the presidential candidate of the

Liberty Party

The voice of white southern abolitionism fell silent at the beginning of the

1830s

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