History Mid Term 2

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The Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921

was the high point of women's political influence in the 1920s

When nine young black men in Scottsboro, Alabama, were charged on trumped-up rape charges in 1931, they were saved from the electric chair by a team of lawyers sent by

Communist party

Among the first signs of economic distress in the United States in the mid-1920s was

slowdown in new construction and in automobile sales

The Ku Klux Klan reemerged in 1915 largely in response to the belief that

the nation needed to be defended against the threat to traditional values posed by blacks, immigrants, radicals, feminists, Catholics, and Jews.

The immigration laws of the 1920s, including the Johnson-Reid Act

marked the beginning of an era of strict limits on immigration.

The outpouring of African American literature and art in New York City in the 1920s was

Harlem Renaissance

During the 1920s, the influence of the "new woman"

was felt by all women, even those who believed in traditional gender roles

When Herbert Hoover moved into the White House in 1929, the U.S. economy was marked by

a huge disparity in wealth between rich and poor.

In his address before the NY Chamber of Commerce in 1925, President Calvin Coolidge argued

that government and business need to be strongly separated from one another

"The Klan's Fight for Americanism" (1926), Hiram W. Evans argued that non-Anglo immigrants were dangerous to the United States for all of the following reasons except:

They add to an increasing transnational cosmopolitan identity that erased America's distinctiveness.

President Wilson's most controversial involvement in Latin America occurred when he

intervened in Mexico's affairs.

A complex web of European military and diplomatic alliances determined the scope of World War I, but the event that triggered the war was

the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by a Bosnian Serb terrorist.

President Wilson's initial reaction to the outbreak of war in Europe in 1914 was to

proclaim absolute neutruality

The Versailles treaty was a bitter disappointment to President Wilson's supporters, but his Fourteen Points were honored in the inclusion of

League of Nations

American women finally got the vote when

Congress passed the Nineteenth Amendment, which was subsequently ratified by the required two-thirds of the states

The Committee on Public Information was created by President Wilson to

stir up patriotism through posters, pamphlets, cartoons, and press releases

By late 1917, progressives and prohibitionists had successfully

lobbied Congress for passage of the Eighteenth Amendment

The Red scare of 1919 and 1920 was

a reaction to U.S. labor unrest, Russian bolshevism, and a flurry of terrorist attacks.

According to Stanley B. Norvell, in his 1919 letter to Victor Lawson, what would be the consequence of America's ongoing mistreatment of African Americans

America would lose international prestige.

The fundamental difference in the philosophies of Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois was that Washington

focused on education and economic progress, while Du Bois emphasized civil rights and black leadership.

Woodrow Wilson's presidency was greatly affected by the fact that he was

a teetotaler and a moralist

Margaret Sanger promoted birth control because she

believed it would usefully alter social and political power relationships.

The efforts of Alice Paul and Carrie Chapman Catt were instrumental in

securing the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment, which granted women the vote.

The Progressive Era witnessed the rise of Jim Crow laws in the South that were designed to

legalize and expand racial segregation in public facilities

The "uprising of twenty thousand" in 1909 was a

A. strike by women garment-workers in New York City who were protesting low wages, dangerous working conditions, and management's refusal to recognize their union.

The new social gospel of the late nineteenth century

alled for the reform of both individuals and society.

he term muckrakers refers to Progressive Era journalists who

filled papers and periodicals with stories of corporate and political wrongdoing.

In his speech delivered on October 2, 1915, John D. Rockefeller Jr. compares a corporation to what?

a square table with 4 legs

President Roosevelt's signature program was called

The new deal

When president R said, " the only thing we have to fear is fear itself," he was referring to

the paralyzing terror caused by the depression

he woman who became the New Deal's unofficial ambassador was

Eleanor Roosevelt

Underlying the New Deal was the belief that

capitalism held the solution to the nation's economic crisis

The FDIC

guaranteed bank customers that the federal government would reimburse them for deposits if their bank failed

The Social Security Act of 1935 provided

old-age pensions, grants to states for dependent mothers and children, and unemployment insurance.

In 1937, disgruntled workers at the General Motors plant in Flint, Michigan

staged a sit-down

In his 1932 campaign speech, who does Franklin D. Roosevelt call "princes of property"?

businessmen

Jane Addams

-Hull House
-Trash pick-up

Florence Kelley

-reformer who worked to prohibit child labor and to improve conditions for female workers
-took over NCL in 1899

John Dewey

He was a philosopher who believed in "learning by doing" which formed the foundation of progressive education. He believed that the teachers' goal should be "education for life and that the workbench is just as important as the blackboard."

Robert La Follete

progressive leader/ gov. of Wisconsin gave power back to people, regulated utilities rates, instituted taxes on inheritance, first to tie state gov. & university together

William McKinley

25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist

Leon Czolgosz

killed president McKinley in 1901. He was an anarchist, one who believes in the absence of government.

Theodore Roosevelt

26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War

JP Morgan

Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"

Upton Sinclair

muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.

John Muir

went on a campaign for awareness of the environment; inspired creation of Yosemite National Park; became president of the Sierra Club, which was devoted to conservation

William Howard Taft

27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.

Woodrow Wilson

28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize

William "Big Bill" Haywood

Leader of the IWW ( Industrial Workers of the World ) whose goal was to organize all workers into one union to overthrow Capitalism

Margaret Sanger

American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.

Alice Paul

head of the National Woman's party that campaigned for an equal rights amendment to the Constitution. She opposed legislation protecting women workers because such laws implied women's inferiority. Most condemned her way of thinking.

Carrie Chapman Catt

Spoke powerfully in favor of suffrage, worked as a school principal and a reporter ., became head of the National American Woman Suffrage, an inspiried speaker and abrilliant organizer. Devised a detailed battle plan for fighting the war of suffrage.

Booker T. Washington

Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book "Up from Slavery."

WEB Du Bois

fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP

William Jennings Bryan

United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)

Francisco 'Pancho' Villa

A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata.

George Creel

head of the Committee on Public Information 1917 which was allegedly formed to combat wartime rumors by providing authoritative info. It served as propaganda agency proclaiming the govn'ts version of reality and discrediting those who questioned that version.

David Lloyd George

He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.

Georges Clemenceau

French statesman who played a key role in negotiating the Treaty of Versailles (1841-1929)

Henry Cabot Lodge

Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations

Calvin Coolidge

became president when Harding died of pneumonia. He was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words, and acquired the name "Silent Cal" for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist. Believed in the government supporting big business.

A Mitchell Palmer

Attorney General who rounded up many suspects who were thought to be un-American and socialistic; he helped to increase the Red Scare; he was nicknamed the "Fighting Quaker" until a bomb destroyed his home; he then had a nervous breakdown and became known as the "Quaking Fighter."

Emma Goldman

An outspoken radical who was deported after being arrested on charges of being an anarchist, socialist, or labour agitator.

Warren G. Harding

president who called for a return to normalcy following WWI

Henry Ford

1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.

Alphonse Capone

United States gangster who terrorized Chicago during Prohibition until arrested for tax evasion (1899-1947)

Marcus Garvey

Many poor urban blacks turned to him. He was head of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and he urged black economic cooperation and founded a chain of UNIA grocery stores and other business

Langston Hughes

African American poet who described the rich culture of african American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music. He wrote of African American hope and defiance, as well as the culture of Harlem and also had a major impact on the Harlem Renaissance.

James Weldon Johnson

NAACP leader and Harlem Renaissance writer; he wrote poetry and, with his brother, the song "Lift Every Voice and Sing."

Zora Neal Hurston

1891-1960. American folklorist. Author of 1937 novel "Their Eyes Were Watching God". Associated with Harlem Renaissance

Ernest Hemingway

One of the most popular writers of the 1920's who wrote "A Farewell to Arms"

F. Scott Fitzgerald

Was part of both the jazz age and the lost generation. Wrote books encouraging the flapper culture, and books scorning wealthy people being self-centered.
-Great Gatsby

Nicola Sacco

United States anarchist (born in Italy) who with Bartolomeo Vanzetti was convicted of murder and in spite of world-wide protest was executed (1891-1927)

Bartolomeo Vanzetti

An Italian immigrant who peddled fish convicted of murder during a payroll robbery and sentenced to death. Police found him and partner in crime with pistols upon arrest

HL Mencken

Roaring 20's author that wielded his pen more as a sword, attacking marriage, democracy, prohibition, puritanism, and the South.

Alfred Smith

He was the Democratic presidential candidate in the 1928 election. He was the first Catholic to be elected as a candidate.

Scottsboro Boys

Nine young black men between the ages of 13 to 19 were accused of of raping two white women by the names of Victoria Price and Ruby Bates. All of the young men were charged and convicted of rape by white juries, despite the weak and contradictory testimonies of the witnesses

FDR

Roosevelt, the President of the United States during the Depression and WWII. He instituted the New Deal. Served from 1933 to 1945, he was the only president in U.S. history to be elected to four terms

Eleanor Roosevelt

FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women

Harry Hopkins

A New York social worker who headed the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and Civil Works Administration. He helped grant over 3 billion dollars to the states wages for work projects, and granted thousands of jobs for jobless Americans. p778

Frances Perkins

Roosevelt's secretary of labor (1993-1945); the first woman to serve as a federal Cabinet officer, she had a great influence on many New Deal programs, most significantly the Social Security Act.

Okies

unflattering name given to Oklahomans and others from the rural Midwest, especially those who left the Dust Bowl looking for better lives during the 1930s

Woody Guthrie

an American singer-songwriter, Guthrie traveled with migrant workers from Oklahoma to California and learned traditional folk and blues songs. Many of his songs are about his experiences in the Dust Bowl era during the Great Depression

Walter White

NAACP, mixed..so he was able to get info from whites; made his top priority to stop lynching, never got anti lynching bill passed

Huey Long

As senator in 1932 of Washington preached his "Share Our Wealth" programs. It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. With this money Long proposed to give every American family a comfortable income, etc

Robert Wagner

A democratic senator from New York State from 1927-1949, he was responsible for the passage of some of the most important legislation enacted through the New Deal. The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 was popularly known as the Wagner Act in honor of the senator. He also played a major role in the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 and the Wagner-Steagall Housing Act of 1937

Mary McLoed Bethune

african american educatior who helped minority students and helped organize the balck cabinet
-FDR's advisor

John Maynard Keynes

British economist who argued that for a nation to recovery fully from a depression, the govt had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption

John L. Lewis

long-time labor leader who organized and led the first important unskilled workers labor union, called in to represent union during sit-down strike

Benito Mussolini

Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy.

Adolf Hitler

This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces.

Francisco Franco

Spanish General; organized the revolt in Morocco, which led to the Spanish Civil War. Leader of the Nationalists - right wing, supported by Hitler and Mussolini, won the Civil War after three years of fighting.

Neville Chamberlain

British statesman who as Prime Minister pursued a policy of appeasement toward fascist Germany (1869-1940)

Joseph Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

Dwight D.Eisenhower

leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2--leader of troops in Africa and commander in DDay invasion-elected president-president during integration of Little Rock Central High School

A. Philip Randolph

America's leading black labor leader who called for a march on Washington D.C. to protest factories' refusals to hire African Americans, which eventually led to President Roosevelt issuing an order to end all discrimination in the defense industries.

Harry S. Truman

The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.

Thomas E. Dewey

The Republican presidential nominee in 1944, Dewey was the popular governor of New York. Roosevelt won a sweeping victory in this election of 1944. Dewey also ran against Harry Truman in the 1948 presidential election. Dewey, arrogant and wooden, seemed certain to win the election, and the newspapers even printed, "DEWEY DEFEATS TRUMAN" on election night. However, the morning results showed that Truman swept the election, much to Dewey's embarrassment.

progressivism

The movement in the late 1800s to increase democracy in America by curbing the power of the corporation. It fought to end corruption in government and business, and worked to bring equal rights of women and other groups that had been left behind during the industrial revolution.

social gospel

Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization

Women's Trade Union League

a U.S. organization of both working class and more well-off women formed in 1903 to support the efforts of women to organize labor unions and to eliminate sweatshop conditions

Triangle Fire

A fire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911 killed 146 people, mostly women. They died because the doors were locked and the windows were too high for them to get to the ground. Dramatized the poor working conditions and let to federal regulations to protect workers.

Muller v. Oregon

1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health

National Consumers' League

formed in the 1890's under the leadership of Florence Kelly, attempted to mobilize the power of women as consumers to force retailers and manufacturing to improve wages and working conditions.

Interstate Commerce Commission

a former independent federal agency that supervised and set rates for carriers that transported goods and people between states

Pure Food and Drug Act

Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.

White Slavery

"compulsory prostitution"; beginning in the late 19th century. Origins have been traced to labor movements as a way to describe low wages and intolerable conditions. Term applies to women in the prostitution business as having no other means of earning money.

Mann Act

1910, gave the interstate comerce commission the power to suspend new railroad rates, along with oversee telephone and cable companie; included communications

Panama Canal

Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000 (746)

Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force

Dollar Diplomacy

Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries

Progressive Party

Also known as the "Bull Moose Party", this political party was formed by Theodore Roosevelt in an attempt to advance progressive ideas and unseat President William Howard Taft in the election of 1912. After Taft won the Republican Party's nomination, Roosevelt ran on the Progressive party ticket.

"The New Nationalism"

1816-23 followed the war of 1812. The scompe & authority of the Supreme Court were established. the Era of Good Feelings characterized the political successors of the Republican Party. The new nationalism led to the development of a new American culture.

Federal Trade Commission

an independent agency of the United States fedeal government that maintains fair and free competition

Clayton Antitrust Act

New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it's effectiveness against labor unions

Federal Trade Commission

Established to preserve competition by preventing unfair business practices and investigates complaints against companies

IWW

a former international labor union and radical labor movement in the United States (Industrial Workers of the World)

National Women's Party

a women's organization founded in 1916 that fought for women's rights during the early 20th century in the United States, particularly for the right to vote on the same terms as men

Atlanta Compromise

Major speech on race-relations given by Booker T. Washington addressing black labor opportunities, and the peril of whites ignoring black injustice

Plessy v. Ferguson

a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal

NAACP

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional

American Expeditionary Force

About 2 million Americans went to France as members of this under General John J. Pershing. Included the regular army, the National Guard, and the new larger force of volunteers and draftees and they served as individuals

U-Boats

German submarines used in World War I

Lusitania

American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI

Zimmerman telegram

March 1917. Sent from German Foreign Secretary, addressed to German minister in Mexico City. Mexico should attack the US if US goes to war with Germany (needed that advantage due to Mexico's promixity to the US). In return, Germany would give back Tex, NM, Arizona etc to Mexico.

Selective Service Act

Law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft

18th Ammendment

Prohibited the manufacture, sale and transport of alcoholic beverages

19th Ammendment

Gave women the right to vote

NAWSA

National American Woman Suffrage Association; founded in 1890 to help women win the right to vote

Committee on Public Information

Organization also known as the Creel Commision which was responsible for rallying American's around the war effort through propaganda

Sedition Act

Made it a crime to criticize the government or government officials. Opponents claimed that it violated citizens' rights to freedom of speech and freedom of the press, gauranteed by the First Amednment.

14 points

Woodrow Wilson's peace plan to end WWI. It calls for free trade; an end to secret pacts between nations; freedom of the seas; arms reduction; and the creation of a world organization - called the League of Nations

League of Nations

an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations

Versailles Treaty

The compromise after WW1, settled land and freedom disputes. Germany had to take full blame for the war in order for the treaty to pass, among other things. The US Senate rejected it.

Seattle General Strike of 1919

-35,000 shipyard workers go on strike with other unions creating a sympathy strike demanding better wages. Completely stops Seattle for a week.
- The Nation's first major general strike. Workers in all industries took part

Boston Police Strike of 1919

the Police Force in Boston, MA went on a strike, and in fear of communism, President Coolidge (then governor at the time) fired them and called in the militia to be the police force

Red Scare

period in US when there was a suspicion of communism and fear of widespread infultration of communists in the US gvnt

Great Migration

movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920

Model T

the first widely available automobile powered by a gasoline engine

Teapot Dome

a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921

Kellogg-Briand Pact

Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another

Welfare Capitalism

when companies provide incentives to build better relationships with employees; health insurance, safety standards, buy stock in the company

"New Women"

Term used to describe career-oriented women in western Europe and the United States in the 1920s; they sought increased social and political rights.

Sheppard-Towner Act

U.S. Act of Congress providing federal funding for maternity and child care, a response to the lack of adequate medical care for women and children

Equal Rights Amendment

constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender

League of Women Voters

League formed in 1920 advocating for women's rights, among them the right for women to serve on juries and equal pay laws

Universal Negro Improvement Association

(UNIA) Association founded by Marcus Gravey in 1914 to foster African American economic independence and establish an independent black homeland in Africa.

Harlem Renaissance

a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American.

KKK

Stands for Ku Klux Klan and started right after the Civil War in 1866. The Southern establishment took charge by passing discriminatory laws known as the black codes. Gives whites almost unlimited power. They masked themselves and burned black churches, schools, and terrorized black people. They are anti-black and anti-Semitic.

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