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The Skeletal System: The Axial SKeleton

What are the two major divisions of the skeleton?

Axial Skeleton &
Appendicular skeleton

Axial Skeleton

Longitudinal axis of the human body.
Skull, Bones, Auditory Ossicles (ear bones), hyoid bone, ribs, sturnum(breastbone), and bones of the vertebral column.

Appendicular Skeleton

Upper and lower limbs (extremities), plus the bones forming the girdles that connect the limbs to the axial skeleton.

What are the Cranial Bones of the skull?

Frontal
Parietal-2
Temporal-2
Occipital
Sphenoid
Ethmoid

What are the Facial Bones of the skull?

Nasal-2
Maxillae-2
Zygomatic-2
Lacrimal-2
Palatine-2
Inferior Nasal Conchae-2
Vomer
Mandible

What are the Sutures of the skull? What bones are joined by each suture?

Coronal-Unites Frontal and both Parietal bones
Sagittal-Unites two Parietal bones on the superior midline of the skull.
Squamous-Unite the Parietal and Temporal bones on the lateral aspects of the skull

What are the Openings of the skull? Name each. What bone does each opening belong to?

...

Nasal Septum

Vomer & Perpendicular Plate

Zygomatic Arch

Zygomatic Bone-Temporal Process
Temporal Bone-Zygomatic Process

Orbit

Frontal
Sphenoid
Ethmoid
Maxilla
Zygomatic
Palatine
Lacrimal

Hard Palate

Maxilla-Palatine Process
Plalatine-Horizontal Plate

TMJ

Condylar process of mandible
Madibular Fossa of temporal bone

Name the bones where the sinuses are present.

Frontal
Maxilla
Sphenoid
Ethmoid

List the differences between the baby skull and an adult skull.

Fontanels,
Babies' skull doesn't have sutures yet.

What is a Fontanel?

Soft spots on babies' skull.

Anterior Fontanel-

between two parietal bones and frontal bone.
Closes 18 to 24 months after birth.

Anterolatal Fontanel-

2, between the frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid bones, are small and irregular in shape.
Closes 3 months after birth.

Posterolateral Fontanel-

at the midline between the two parietal bones and the occipital bone.
Closes 2 months after birth.

Posterier Fontanel-

between the parietal, occipital, and temporal bones.
Begin to close 1 to 2 months after birth, generally not complete till 12 months.

Cervical Vertebrae-

7

Thoracic Vertebrae-

12

Lumbar Vertebrae-

5

How many curvatures do humans have?

4
(1 in fetus)

Which are primary curvatures?

Thoratic
Sacral

Which are secondary curvatures?

Cervical
Lumbar

C1 (atlas) What are 2 major articulations(joined) and structures participating in this articulation?

Atlantoocicipital,
Atlantoaxial

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