Spores that are formed in protective membrane sacs.
A spore-bearing sac composed of a protective membrane that is globe-, flask-, or dish-shaped.
The anaerobic breakdown of sugars into smaller molecules.
A process that separates the substances in a solution based on their boiling points.
A zygote surrounded by a hard, protective covering.
The result of sexual reproduction when each parent contributes half of the DNA necessary for the offspring.
A chemical secreted by a living organism that kills or reduces the reproduction rate of other organisms.
A mutualistic symbiotic relationship between a fungus and an alga.
A dust-like substance released by lichens that contains spores of both the alga and the fungus in a protective case.
A mutualistic symbiosis between a plant and a fungus.