Bohemian religious reformer whose efforts to reform the church eventually fueled the Protestant Reformation.
Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope.
95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
The practice of appointing family members to positions of favor. The practice was very common in the Catholic Church. Indulgences - Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
Pope Clement VII
(r. 1523-34) Pope during the Sack of Rome. Also refused to recognized Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon, which led to the English Reformation.
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
Council of Trent
(1645-63) Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Peace of Augsburg
(1555) Enabled the German princes to determine their own religion - either Catholic or Lutheran.
Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises.
(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.
Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.
Defenestration of Prague
(1618) The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.
Peace of Westphalia
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in Paris, on Saint Bartholomew's Day, 1572. Organized by Catherine de Medici.
War of the Three Henrys
(1585-1589) French civil war because the Holy League vowed to bar Henri of Navarre from inheriting the French throne. Supported by the Holy League and Spain's Philip II, Henri of Guise battles Henri III of Valois and Henri of Navarre.
Catherine de Medici
Was the wife of Henry II (Valois). She acted as regent during the reign of her three weak and ineffective sons - Francis II (1559-60) Charles IX (1560-74) Henry III (1574-89). Ordered the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre.