AICE EUROPEAN HISTORY - Reformation - Chapter 14

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Huguenots

French Calvinists.

Edict of Nantes

1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.

John Huss

Bohemian religious reformer whose efforts to reform the church eventually fueled the Protestant Reformation.

John Wycliffe

Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope.

Martin Luther

95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.

Simony

The selling of church offices.

Usury

The practice of lending money for interest.

Nepotism

The practice of appointing family members to positions of favor. The practice was very common in the Catholic Church. Indulgences - Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.

Excommunication

When a person is kicked out of the Catholic church.

Consubstantiation

The bread and wine undergo a spiritual change.

Johann Tetzel

Hired by Archbishop Albert to sell Indulgences. Infuriated Luther.

Diet of Worms

Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.

Thomas Wolsey

Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.

Act of Supremacy

Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.

Pope Clement VII

(r. 1523-34) Pope during the Sack of Rome. Also refused to recognized Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon, which led to the English Reformation.

Anglicanism

Upholding to the teachings of the Church of England as defined by Elizabeth I.

John Calvin

French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion

Predestination

Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.

The Institutes of Christian Religion

Written by John Calvin

Council of Trent

(1645-63) Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.

Thomas Cranmer

Prepared the First Book of Common Prayer.

Peace of Augsburg

(1555) Enabled the German princes to determine their own religion - either Catholic or Lutheran.

Ignatius Loyola

Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises.

Jesuits

Members of the Society of Jesus, staunch Catholics. Led by Loyola.

John Knox

Dominated the movement for reform in Scotland. Had been taught in Geneva by Calvin.

Theocracy

A community in which the state is subordinate to the church

Ulrich Zwingli

(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.

Baroque

Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.

Defenestration of Prague

(1618) The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.

Peace of Westphalia

Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in Paris, on Saint Bartholomew's Day, 1572. Organized by Catherine de Medici.

War of the Three Henrys

(1585-1589) French civil war because the Holy League vowed to bar Henri of Navarre from inheriting the French throne. Supported by the Holy League and Spain's Philip II, Henri of Guise battles Henri III of Valois and Henri of Navarre.

Catherine de Medici

Was the wife of Henry II (Valois). She acted as regent during the reign of her three weak and ineffective sons - Francis II (1559-60) Charles IX (1560-74) Henry III (1574-89). Ordered the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre.

Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis

Signed in 1559 to end the Hapsburg-Valois Wars so both sides could focus on the Protestants

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