Language of Medicine Chapter 18- Pathology

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Chabner's Language of Medicine, 9th edition. Pathology for Chapter 18- the endocrine system.

goiter

enlargement of the thyroid gland

endemic goiter

enlargement of the thyroid gland occurring in certain regions and peoples where there is a lack of iodine in the diet

adenomatous goiter

enlargement of the thyroid gland with hyperplasia, nodules, and adenomas

hyperthyroidism

overactivity of the thyroid gland; thyrotoxicosis; most commomn form is Graves disease

Graves disease

most common form of hyperthyroidism; it is considered an autoimmune disorder and is characterized by an increased heart rate, higher body temperature, weight loss, and exophthalmos (protrusion of the eyeballs)

hypothyroidism

underactivity of the thyroid gland causing fatigue, sluggishness, weight gain, and slow heart rate

myxedema

advanced hypothyroidism in adulthood caused by atrophy of the thyroid gland; skin becomes puffy due to the collection of mucus-like material under the skin

cretinism

extreme hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leading to lack of normal physical and mental growth

thyroid carcinoma

cancer of the thyroid gland

hyperparathyroidism

excessive production of parathormone resulting in hypercalcemia and damage to the kidneys, heart, and bones

hypoparathyroidism

deficient production of parathyroid hormone resulting in hypocalcemia, muscle and nerve weakness, and muscle spasms

tetany

constant muscle contraction; muscle and nerve weakness with spasms of muscles

adrenal virilism

excessive secretion of the adrenal androgens resulting in amenorrhea, hirsutism (excessive hair on face and body) , and acne

Cushing syndrome

group of signs and symptoms produced by excess cortisol from adrenal cortex (e.g., obesity, moon-like face, buffalo hump, hyperglycemia and hypertension)

Addison disease

hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex

pheochromocytoma

benign tumor of the adrenal medulla resulting in the production of excess secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine; tumor cells stain a dark or dusty (phe/o) color (chrom/o)

hyperinsulinism

excess secretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia

diabetes mellitus (DM)

lack of insulin secretion or resistances of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells

Type 1 diabetes

form of diabetes mellitus that is an autoimmune disease; results in the destruction of beta islet cells and a complete deficiency of insulin on the body; usually occurs before age 30

Type 2 diabetes

form of diabetes mellitus occurring in older age and with obesity; deficiency of insulin occurs with insulin resistance

insulin resistance

the resistance of target tissues to the action of insulin; the primary defect in type 2 diabetes

metabolic syndrome

precursor to type 2 diabetes; associated with insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, and excessive triglycerides in the blood

ketoacidosis

fats are improperly burned leading to an accumulation of ketones and acids in the body; a primary complication of type 1 diabetes

insulin shock

severe hypoglycemia caused by an overdose of insulin, decreased intake of food, or excessive exercise; primary complication of type 1 diabetes

acromegaly

hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary after puberty, leading to enlargement of extremities

gigantism

hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues

dwarfism

congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone; hypopituitary dwarfism

panhypopituitarism

deficiency of all pituitary hormones

syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH)

excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone producing water retention in the body

diabetes insipidus (DI)

insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone causing the kidney tubules to fail to hold back needed water and salts; polyuria and polydipsia are two symptoms

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