# Unit 2: Population Vocab

## 30 terms

### cohort

population of various age catagories in age-sex population pyramids. Helps to tell what stage a country is in.

### demographic equation

formula that calculates population change. The formula finds the increase or decrease in a population. The formula is found by doing births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration

### demographic transition model

Stage 1: low growth
2: high growth
3: moderate growth
4: low growth
Stage 5 is not offically a stage but it is a possible stage that includes 0 or negative pop. growth.

### dependency ratio

# of people who are too young or too old to work compared to the # of people in their productive years. This tells how many people each worker supports.

### doubling time

# of years needed to double a population, assuming a sonstant rate of natural increase.

### infant mortality rate

annual # of deaths of infants under 1 year of age, compared with total live births. Expressed as # of deaths among infants per 1000 births.
It helps tell how developed a country is.

### J-curve

when the projection population shows exponential growth.
Exponential growth means that more resources will be needed.

### Mortality

infant morality rate and life expectancy. The IMR reflects a country's health care system and life expectancy measures the average # of years a baby can expect to live.

### natality

(crude birth rate) the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; it is expressed as # of births in a year to every 1000 people alive in the society.
It tells you the rate of a country is habing babies as well as how fast you can expect that population to grow.

### neo-malthusian

theory that builds upon Malthus' thoughts on overpopulation. Takes into count 2 factors: pop. growth in LDC's and outstripping of resources other than food
Gives another view on population changes.

### overpopulation

when the # of people in an area is more than the area can support.
Shows how people are related to the amount of resources in an area.

### population densities

frequency with which something occurs in space.

### population explosion

sudden increase in the population in either a certain geographical area.
Can tell when a country transitions into a new level

### population projection

predicts the future population of an area. Helps predict future problems

### population pyramid

population displayed by age and gender on a bar graph.
shows distribution of population

### rate of natural increase

% by which a population grows in a year.
Crude birth rate - crude death rate= NIR

### S-curve

relates to growth and decline in the natural increase.

### Zero population growth

when crude birth rate equals the crude death rate and the natural increase rate approaches zero.

### Activity space

space used for a certain industry or activity
relates to land use.

### chain migration

migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the sams nationality previously migrated there.
Shows on pattern of migration that affects the diversity of a country.

### Cyclic movement

seasonal and nomadism. Leave a place, but return.

### distance decay

the dimnishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.

### gravity model

model that holds that the potentail use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the # of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.

### internal migration

perminant movement within a particular country.

### intervening opportunity

an environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that heps migration.

"bubble"

### push-pull factors

factors that convince people to leave old residence and move to new locations

### refugee

person forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in social group, or political opinion.

### step migration

series of small, less extreme location changes are steps

### Transhumance

seasonal migration of live stock between mountains and lowland pasture areas.