An instrument that can magnify very small objects and make them look larger.
This type of light microscope magnifies images using two lenses at once.
Condition when objects appear larger than they really are.
Ability to distinguish details on an object.
______________ microscopes use beams of electrons to produce magnified images.
First person to observe cells.
The basic unit of structure and function in living things.
A widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things.
1. All living things are composed of cells.
2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.
3. All cells are produced from other cells.
List the three principles of the Cell Theory.
Made up of many cells.
Which stage of the cell cycle lasts the longest?
Stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides.
Stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's cytoplasm divides.
either of the two strands joined together by a single centromere, formed from the duplication of the chromosome during interphase
The first person to see living cells under a microscope.
He concluded that all plants are made of cells.
He concluded that all animals are made of cells.
He concluded that "all cells come from cells."
A microscope with a 10x lens in the eyepiece and a revolving nosepiece with lenses of 4x, 10x, and 40x can magnify at _____, 100x, and 400x.
The diameter of a microscope's field of view is estimated to be 2 mm. About how wide is an object that fills one half of the field?
chloroplast and cell wall
Name 2 structures found in plant cells but NOT in animal cells.
lysosome and centriole
Name 2 structures found in animal cells but NOT in plant cells.
organelle that uses light to make food in plants
organelle that is the "control center" of the cell
a thin flexible barrier that surrounds a cell and controls which substances pass into and out of a cell
A rigid supporting layer that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms.
the nucleus of a cell is surrounded by a membrane called the _______ _________.
round structure in the nucleus responsible for producing ribosomes
the combination of DNA and proteins that make up the contents of the nucleus of the cell
a saclike organelle that stores water, food, or other materials
Which cell type has the largest vacuoles inside the cell - animal or plant?
a saclike organelle in animal cells which contain substances that break down large food particles or old cell parts into smaller pieces. Also called the cell's "recycling center".
Name 3 functions of cell division.
interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
Name the three main stages of cell division.
During the cell cycle, a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides into two new cells, which are called _____________ cells.
This stage of cell cycle is where DNA replication occurs
The stage of cell cycle where centrioles are duplicated (only in animal cells)
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Name the four phases of mitosis in the order that they occur.
phase of mitosis where chromosomes in the nucleus condense, centrioles move to opposite poles of the cell, and the nuclear envelope breaks down
phase of mitosis where condensed chromosomes bind (in their centromere region) to the spindle fibers and line up in the middle of the cell
phase of mitosis where the centromere of each chromosome splits, pulling the chromatids apart into daughter chromosomes. The new chromosomes are pulled toward opposite ends of the cell and the cell begins to stretch out
phase of mitosis where chromosomes begin to decondense, the nuclear membrane begins to form over the two daughter nuclei, and the cell membrane (in animal cells) begins to pinch in. In plant cells, a cell plate forms across the middle of the cell.
In cells, a large oval organelle that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA and controls many of the cell's activities.
A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell.
A small grain-shaped organelle in the cytoplasm of a cell that produces proteins.
The thick fluid region of a cell located between the cell membrane and the nucleus in animal and plant cells.
Rod-shaped organelles that convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its functions.
An organelle that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another.
An organelle in a cell that receives proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, packages them, and distributes them to other parts of the cell.
An organelle in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and changes it to an energy form that cells can use in making food.
Made of a single cell.
A group of similar cells that perform a specific function.
A body structure that is composed of different kinds of tissues that work together.
A group of organs that work together to perform a major function.
The series of events in which a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two daughter cells.
The first stage of the cell cycle that takes place before cell division occurs, during which a cell grows and makes a copy of its DNA.
The process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus before cell division.
A rod of condensed chromatin within a cell's nucleus that contains DNA that is passed from one generation to the next.
The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles in to each of the two new daughter cells.
a region on a chromosome that joins two sister chromatids
phase of mitosis where chromosomes in the nucleus condense
phase of mitosis where centrioles move to opposite poles of the cell
phase of mitosis where the nuclear envelope breaks down
phase of mitosis where chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
phase of mitosis where the centromere of each chromosome splits
phase of mitosis where chromosomes begin to decondense
phase of mitosis where the nuclear membrane begins to reform