Freeman chapters 25-28

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Gonzaga University Biology 101

gene flow

movement of alleles from one population to another

mutation

DNA polymerase makes an error, the base sequence changes, the protein coded by the sequence may be different

Biological species concept

the definition of a species as a population or group of populations that are reproductively isolated from other groups

disadvantages of biological species concept

what about species that reproduce asexually? it can only be applied to populations that overlap geographically

prezygotic isolation

individuals of different species are prevented from mating

postzygotic isolation

offsprings of matings between members of different species do not survive or reproduce

mechanical isolation

morphology prevents breeding

behavioral isolation

different mating behaviors

genetic isolation

breeding occurs, but gametes don't match

hybrid inviability and infertility

offspring die or can't reproduce

morphospecies concept

distinguishing features are most likely to arise if populations are independent and isolated from gene flow

phylogenetic species concept

reconstruct the evolutionary history of populations

monophyletic group

an ancestral population plus all of its descendants

synapomorphy

trait found in certain groups of organisms that exists in no others, "unique forms"

subspecies

populations that live in discrete geographic areas and have distinguishing features

dispersal

population colonizes a new habitat and forms a new population

vicariance

physical barrier splits a population into subgroups that are physically isolated

allopatric speciation

speciation that begins with physical isolation via dispersal or vicariance

sympatric speciation

speciation of populations that live in the same time and place

ecological isolation

species use different habitats

temporal isolation

species breed at different times

phylogenetic trees

document the evolutionary relationships among organisms and are estimated from data

mass extinction

environmental catastrophes that rapidly eliminate species and have occurred repeatedly throughout the history of time

phylogenetic inference

studies of living specimens, fossils, DNA, RNA, protein, and genetics

phenetic

calculate a statistic that summaries similarity

cladistic

identify synapomorphies, shared derived traits...closely related taxa should share the most

ancestral trait

a characteristic that existed in an ancestor

derived trait

a modified form of the ancestral trait, found in a descendant

convergent evolution

similarities evolve independently

homology

similar traits due to shared ancestry

homoplasy

similar traits but independent evolution

background extinction

average rate of extinction caused by gradual change, competition, new diseases

End-Permian extinction hypothesized causes

intense global warming, oceans became anoxic, sea level dropped dramatically, low O2 and high CO2 levels in the atmosphere

ecological opportunity

new or novel resources become available

morphological innovation

evolution of key trait

capsules

sticky layer outside of cell wall (polysaccharide or protein)

fimbriae

attachment pili (protein appendages)

flagella

motility, high velocity potential

membrane folding

increases surface area for chemical reactions

endospores

prokaryotes use them to battle harsh environments

transformation

uptake of foreign DNA from surroundings

transduction

phage construction error. horizontal gene transfer

conjugation

combining DNA with other bacteria

pathogenic

bacteria that cause disease

cyanobacteria

first organisms to perform oxygenic photosynthesis, became chloroplast

unique prokaryotic adaptations

diverse metabolic pathways, cell walls, surface adaptations, membrane folding, reproductive strategies

adaptive radiation

The diversification of a group of organisms into forms filling different ecological niches

chlamydiae

spherical, very tiny. endosymbionts--they live as parasites inside animal cells

proteobacteria

diverse morphology, some are multicellular, use every metabolic pathway except oxygenic photosynthesis, E. coli is a member, became mitochondria

archea

live in virtually every habitat, including extreme environments. no known parasitic

fossils

3.5 bya

prokaryotic photosynthesis

2.7 bya

eukaryotic cells/oxygen increases

2.2-2.1 bya

cambrian explosion, animals appear

550 mya

amphibeans

400 mya

reptiles

300 mya

mammals

200 mya

birds

150 mya

dinosaurs go extinct

65 mya

homosapiens

200,000 ya

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