What is body Image?
-How we see our own body
-How we think, feel, and act toward it
Dimension of our body
-How we imagine ourselves to look or picture we form of ourselves
-How we think about or evaluate our body in terms of its appearance and function
-Includes beliefs of attractiveness, strength, and fitness of the body, the extent to which we value attractiveness and function, and the things we say to ourselves about our body.
-Feelings (i.e., proud, disgusted) experienced in relation to our body's appearance and function
-Positive and negative feelings about body
-What we do to reflect our positive or negative thoughts and feelings
Example is the types of clothes one wears or activities one is involved in.
Measuring our Body
-Assesses the level of accuracy of judgments about the size of one's body parts or the body as a whole
-Questionnaires that assess the degree of satisfaction with one's body shape, size and function, as well as one's attitudes, beliefs, and thoughts about body shape, size, and function
-Rates one's level of satisfaction with items on a list
-Choose images from a series of drawings, selecting those that represent one's current size and ideal size
Criticism: Some scales do not adequately measure concerns about muscularity
Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) is one of most widely used measures. Attitudes, beliefs, and thoughts about one's body are typically measured using this type of questionnaire which is a series of questions.
-Assess feelings such as worry, shame, anxiety, comfort, embarrassment, and pride in relation to the body.
-Greater negative feelings greater body image disturbance
-Social physique anxiety (Exhibit 9.6) - is the anxiety ppl experience during real or imagined conditions when other ppl evaluate or "check out" their body.
-Assess the frequency with which an individual engages in activities that might indicate body image disturbance
Ask people to self-report frequency with which they engage in one of two behaviors:
Avoidance behaviors - are actions performed to divert attention away from the body or to prevent other ppl from seeing one's body.
-Lifestyle behaviors - are actions performed with the goal of altering the body or that reflect extensive body image concern
-Body checking behaviors (Exhibit 9.7) - are actions performed to monitor or access one's body shape or size.
Healthy vs. Disturbed BI
Healthy body Image - is reflected in positive self-evaluations along the four body image dimensions.
-Have accurate perceptions about their body shape and size.
-Have thoughts and feelings about their body that are predominately positive
-Behave in ways that reflect these positive evaluations
Body Image Disturbance - can be seen when an individual has negative self-evaluations along any or all of the body image dimensions.
-Perceptual dimension -when perceptions of one's body shape and size differ from one's actual shape and size.
-Cognitive / affective dimensions -negative thoughts and feeling
-Behavioral dimension - when actions are performed to hide or change the body's appearance without regard for health implications.
Body Image Disturbance Women vs. Men
-Body image disturbance has become almost as common among men as among women
Body Reality vs. Body Ideal
Body reality - Our actual physical characteristics—height, weight, body fat, lean body mass, bone structure, fitness, strength, disease, etc.
Body ideal - How we think our body should look and function
-Body image reflects an interplay between body reality and body ideal
-When reality and ideal are the same or very similar, people usually have a positive, healthy body image.
-When reality is perceived worse than ideal, this judgment leads to BID
Factors that Influence Body Image
-Society personal ideals are based off of media driven ideals
-Media promotes a narrowly strict defined image
-These ideals are unrealistic and unattainable for vast majority of ppl
-Fashion models advertised are norm
-Cultural body ideals are usually glamorized by the media
-Ppl apart of ethnic group who reject the media have healthier body images than do those who endorse the media.
-Activities that we choose to participate can influence body image by altering perceptions of body ideal.
Ex: women who lift weights have an ideal to be bulkier and muscular despite the difference from cultural ideal
Changes in body reality
-Due to puberty and growing
-As we age, the body grows and alters in size, shape, proportion, and function. These changes can have a profound effect on oneself and one's body
Why Body Image is Important
A healthy body image is related to better psychological well-being in at least two ways:
-lowered risk for depression and anxiety
Extreme body dissatisfaction can sometimes be indicative of severe psychological disturbances like:
-Body dysmorphic disorder
-Excessively preoccupied with an imagined defect in their physical appearance
-Obsessive-compulsive activities such as constantly weighing oneself or checking appearance
Body image can affect one's tendencies to engage in health-damaging and health promoting behaviors:
• Eating disorders
• Unhealthy weight control strategies
• Diet and exercise programs
• Healthy eating
• Physical activity
Mechanisms Of Change through Exercise
1.Improve Physical Fitness
2.Increase awareness of physical capabilities
All of which ENHANCE BODY IMAGE
Influence of Setting and Attire
Exercise setting preferences appear to be influenced by body image concerns
-People with high social physique anxiety exercise in private or far away from instructor, in baggy non-revealing clothes, they also had more negative feelings toward people who wore revealing attire