Intro to Music Test 2

50 terms by meganzakour

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concerto

a composition for orchestra and a soloist

concerto grosso

a baroque composition for orchestra and a group of solo instruments

ritornello

the orchestral material at the beginning of a concerto gross which always returns later in the piece

variation form

a form in which a single melodic unit is repeated with harmonic, rhythmic, dyanamic, or timbral changes

fugue

a musical form consisting of a theme repeated a fifth above or a fourth below its first statement

entries

things written

minuet

a stately court dance in the 17th-18th century

tertiary

third in position

recitative

A vocal solo in opera, cantats, and oratorios that declaims the text in a sung-speech manner, in free rhythm with minimal accompainment.

oratorio

a musical composition for voices and orchestra based on a religious text

counterpoint

a musical form involving the simultaneous sound of two or more melodies

bridge

section of music that comes between the first theme and the second group and makes the transition

ternary

having three units or components or elements; ABA

chamber music

serious music performed by a small group of musicians

Beethoven

German composer of instrumental music (especially symphonic and chamber music)

basso ostinato

a motive or phrase in the bass that is repeated again and again

subject

the term for the principle theme of a fugue

prelude

introduction; introductory performance or event; forerunner

sarabande

Stately Spanish Baroque dance type in triple meter, a standard movement of the Baroque suite

opera seria

Italian serious opera

aria

a self-contained composition for solo voice, usually with instrumental accompaniment and usually found within the context of an opera, oratorio or cantata

staged

deliberately arranged for effect

the classical orchestra

Size increases, standard group of 4 sections (strings, woodwinds in pairs- clarinet is new. Brass: pairs of horns, trumpets. Percussion: 2 timpani.) Note: trombones used in opera/church music. Composers expploited individual tone colors. Role of each section (strings most important; 1st violins with melody. Woodwinds add contrasting timbre; melodic solos. Brass adds power. Timpani for rhythmic bite and emphasis.

development

the process of expanding themes and short motives into larger sections of music

sonata

Instrumental genre in several movements for soloist or small ensemble.

ensemble

a musical numbering in an opera, cantina, or oratorio that is sung by two or more people

Mozart

prolific Austrian composer and child prodigy

movement

a self-contained section of a larger pier, such as a symphony or concerto grosso

ground bass

an ostinato in the bass

fugal exposition

the opening section of a fugue, in which all the voices enter with the main subject.

toccata

especially in baroque music,a written-out composition in improvisational style, generally for organ or harpsichord

dance suite

a collection of instrumental dances, each with its own distinctive rhythm and character

opera buffa

Comic opera

da capo

from the beginning

church cantata

a cantata with religious words

symphony

a large orchestral piece in several movements

recapitulation

a section of a musical composition or movement in which themes introduced earlier are repeated

scherzo

light or playful part of a sonata or symphony

Haydn

Motivic composer. Influenced the classical form of the symphony and string quartets as major instrumental forms. Taught Beethoven. (1732-1809)

cadenza

a brilliant solo passage occuring near the end of a piece of music

episode

a brief section of a literary or dramatic work that forms part of a connected series

arpeggio

the notes of a chord played in succession to one another, rather than simultaneously; a broken chord

gigue

lively Baroque dance in compound meter

libertto

text of an opera

castrati

artificial male sopranos

chorale

Originally a hymn tune of the German Lutehran Church sung by the congregation in unison and in German.

sonata exposition

a section w/two contrasting themes first and second; ends in key of dominant

coda

the closing section of a musical composition

string quartet

an instrumental quartet with 2 violins and a viola and a cello

fragmentation

the technique of reducing a theme to fragmentary motives

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