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What is another name for the TCA cycle?

citric acid cycle

When did oxidative phosphorylation evolve?

1-2 billion years ago

Why did oxidative phosphorylation evolve?

O2 became plentiful

What is the purpose of the TCA cycle?

to extract energy from pyruvate

What is unique about the intermediate step that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA?

It is the final common pathway for the oxidation of fuel molecules.

Where does the intermediate step that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA occur in eukaryotes?

mitochondria

Where does the intermediate step that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA occur in aerobic bacteria?

cytosolic membrane

Where does the intermediate step that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA occur in anerobic bacteria?

It dosen't occur.

What is produced by the intermediate step that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA?

acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH

What is used by the intermediate step that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA?

pyruvate + CoA + NAD+

What is the net reaction of the intermediate step that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA?

pyruvate +CoA + NAD+ -> acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH

What two process does the intermediate step that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA?

glycolysis and the TCA cycle

Where in the mitochondria does the formation of acetyl-CoA from pyruvate occur?

matrix

What type of reaction is the one that converts pyruvate into acetyl-CoA?

oxidative decarboxylation

What enzymes are used to form acetyl-CoA from pyruvate?

pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

Tell me about the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

It is a multi-enzyme complex.

How many enzymes does the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex contain?

3

What is the purpose of forming enzyme complex?

The close proximity of the enzymes increase the overall rate of reaction and decreases side reaction.

What coenzyme is necessary for the formation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex?

thiamine

What is vitamin B1?

thiamine

What is thiamine?

vitamin B1

What is a deficiency of thiamine called?

beriberi

What is beriberi?

a deficiency of thiamine

What does the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex require thiamine?

Thiamine is used to form cofactor TPP.

What is TPP used for?

the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

What is beriberi characterized by?

increase blood pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate levels

Which is more reduced CO2 or an acetyl group?

acetyl group

What type of reactions are the most common in the TCA cycle?

redox

When is oxaloacetate used?

in the TCA cycle

How many NADH are produced by the TCA cycle?

3

How many FAD are produced?

1

What is FAD reduced to?

FADH2

What is NADP+ reduced to?

NADPH

What is NAD+ reduced to?

NADH

When FAD becomes FADH2 is oxidized or reduced?

reduced

Alpha-ketoglutarate is found in what step?

TCA cycle

What are the reactants of the TCA cycle?

acetyl-CoA + GDP + Pi + FAD + 3NAD+

What are the products of the TCA cycle?

2CO2 + 3NADH + FADH2 + GTP + CoA + 2H+

What is the net reaction of the TCA cycle?

acetyl-CoA + GDP + Pi + FAD + 3NAD+ -> 2CO2 + 3NADH + FADH2 + GTP + CoA + 2H+

NADH can be used to generate how many ATP?

3

FADH2 can be used to generate how many ATP?

2

Where is O2 used in the cell?

mitochondria

What is the average length and width of a mitochondria?

1-4 micrometers in length and 0.2-1 micrometers in width

Where do we believe mitochondria and chloroplast come from?

a symbiotic relationship between the cell and a bacteria

Do different cells have different number of mitochondria normally?

yes

How many mitochondria are found in liver cells?

~1500

What percent of the volume of a liver cell is the mitochondria?

20-30%

How do the number of mitochondria in liver cells compare to that of the skeletal muscle cells?

Skeletal muscle cells have more mitochondria then liver cells.

How many membranes are found around a mitochondria?

2

What are the names of the membranes?

outer membrane and inner membrane

What is another name for cristae?

inner membrane

What is the purpose of the outer membrane?

It encases organelle.

Describe the inner membrane?

It is highly folded.

What is the purpose of the inner membrane?

It divides the interior into two aqueous compartments.

What is the inner compartment called?

matrix

What is the matrix?

It is the inner compartment of the mitochondria.

What is the intramembranous space?

the outer compartment of the mitochondria

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