Articles of Confederation
Made in 1777. The main issue was the land out west. Passed during the American Revolution by Congress. Land Ordinance of 1785: Congress sells off land to pay of the war debt. Northwest Ordinance of 1787: Territory of Federal gov and State government (once population reaches 60k, you write a constitution and send it to congress for approval). It was weak central government. It was a loose agreement etween states and power rests in the states. Legislature only (congress) and it was weak because it was one vote per state. Congress cannot regulate commerce or taxes. There isn't a national currency and states have all of the power. It leads to the Constitutional Convention.
It creates the two house of congress which are known as the senate and house of representatives.
Senate: NJ plan: 2 senators from every state
House of REpresentatives: VA plan: based off of population of each state, all tax bills and revenue bills start here.
Executive branch: president: military commander-in-chief (because of Shay's rebellion)
Electoral college: not everyone is educated, so people make ignorant decisions. State legislatures hire electors and they vote for the better of the state.
3/5 compromise: Every slave in the south is equal to 60% in the population census
Jeffersonians. Antifederalists: opposed Federal government. Jefferson. interpreted literally, strict construction, states have all power which is not expressed in the constitution.
These two groups came about after the Constitutional Convention. Love french hate brittish. southern states and rural areas.
To avoid any further overseas wars, Washington does not participate in the French Revolution. France becomes angry because The Franco-American alliance was still in place. It claimed America's official neutrality. It was controversial because the Jeffersonians believed that they should help France, while others became excited because of the pro-Britain stance. It was important because it helped for the survival of both the Americas and France. It also lead to the XYZ affair.
federalists and antifederalists
Federalists: they were wealthier. NE cities and control manufactoring finance. have good economy. love british hate french
Antifederalists: southern states and rural areas.
factions that grow into parties
Alien Laws and Sedition Acts
After gaining support from XYZ affair, federalists pushed this movement.
Alien laws: immigrants are poor and uneducated and so there is a citizenship requirement that changed from 5 to 14 years
Sedition Acts: it is an unconstitutional act against the JDRS which stated that anyoe impeding policies of government or defaming its officials could be tried in court. Supreme court is mostly federalists.
Virginia Statute and Religious freedom
Measure enacted by the Virginia legislature prohibiting state support for religious institutions and recognizing freedom of worship. SErved as a model for the religion clause of the first amendment to the Constitution.
separation of church and state
de-anglicanized and reformed the protestant episcopal church