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Julius Nyerere

President of Tanzania who advocated an African form of socialism

Apartheid

a social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites

Haile Selassie

emperor of Ethiopia

Patrice Lumumba

the first prime minister of the Congo and also helped the Congo gain independence from Belgium; he was liked by the Congolese but not by the U.S. and the government and he was quickly imprisoned and murdered

OAU

Organization of African Unity, promoted cooperation among members, supported independence and sough peaceful settlements of disputes

FLN

National Liberation Front -- underground movement by Algerian Muslims to gain independence from France.

Nelson Mandela

South African statesman who was released from prison to become the nation's first democratically elected president in 1994 (born in 1918)

Nkrumah

founder of Ghana's independence, Ghana's First President

Muammar al-Gadhafi

dictator of libya

General Joseph Mobutu

The leader who changed the name of his country to Zaire; when he was overthrown it became the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Jomo Kenyatta

A nationalist leader who fought to end oppressive laws against Africans; later became the first Prime Minister of Kenya

Mau Mau

a violent movement against European settlers that eventually led to Kenya's decolonization from Britain

Ian Smith

Rhodesian statesman who declared independence of Zimbabwe from Great Britain (born in 1919)

Afrikaners

South Africans descended from Dutch and French settlers of the seventeenth century. Their Great Trek founded new settler colonies in the nineteenth century. Though a minority among South Africans, they held political power after 1910. (735)

African National Congress

An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923. Eventually brought equality (809)

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