(1514-64): Flemish physician, taught at the University of Padua in Italy. Made careful dissections and founded the science of anatomy. Published his findings in Structure of the Human Body (DaVinci never published his work). The accepted anatomy of the human body until that time was Galen's(a Hellenistic Greek) - recorded in the 2nd century A.D. His work and teachings would influence subsequent medical scientists.
(1578-1657): An English physician who studied at the University of Padua. Wrote On the Movement of the Heart and the Blood. Established an understanding of the circulation of the blood and the structure and function of arteries and veins. (Later on, an Italian named Malpighi would discover the existence of capillaries).
(1632-1723): A Dutch naturalist who perfected the microscope. The Dutch had long been renowned for their work with lenses. Leeuwenhoek used his perfected microscope to study the invisible world of bacteria, protozoa, and animal and plant cells
(1473-1543): a Polish monk and astronomer who had studied in Italy and subjected himself to Renaissance questioning attitude. Back in northern Europe, he made astronomical observations and determined that the sun is the center of the universe and that the earth revolves around it NOT vice versa as had been taught for centuries and endorsed by the Church. Mathematically his heliocentric theory was much simpler than the convoluted explanations 'astronomers' had been giving at that time to make the data fit the geocentric theory that had dominated since the time of Ptolemy. Copernicus published his findings in the year of his death. While the R.C. Church (and even Protestants such as Luther) disagreed with his propositions, there was not a great stir such as would follow almost a hundred years later.
On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres
Published in 1543 this was Copernicus' work which outlined the heliocentric theory.
(1546-1601): a Danish nobleman and astronomer who built Europe's most modern astronomical laboratory, where he and his associates collected a mass of accurate data about the stars and planets. These discoveries served to undermine Ptolemy's geocentric view of the universe YET Brahe would never accept the Copernican heliocentric view. However, his assistant - Kepler - would.
(1571-1630): a German astronomer who had worked for Brahe and accepted the heliocentric theory. Proceeded to develop THREE LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION. Published these between 1609 and 1619:
(1) planets, including the earth, revolve around the sun in elliptical(rather than circular) orbits
(2) velocity of the planets varies according to their distance from the sun and a planet moves faster when it is closer to the sun than when is farther away
(3) third law set forth a complex mathematical formula explaining the physical relationship among the moving planets
(1564-1642): Italian mathematician, astronomer and physicist. Determined the validity of the heliocentric theory. The telescope had recently been invented in the Netherlands and Galileo refined the design to make astronomical observations and confirm Copernicus' theory. He discovered the mountains on the moon, the moons of Jupiter, the rings around Saturn and the sunspots. Persecuted by the Roman Inquisition for publishing his work, Galileo spent the remainder of his life under house arrest. There he continued his scientific work with a focus on less controversial subjects. His study of falling bodies disproved Aristotle's contention that objects fall at varying speeds(implication of gravity), depending on their weights (experiments done from top of leaning tower of Pisa) and he also developed the theory of the pendulum and discovered the principle of inertia.
Dialogue on Two Chief Systems of the World
published in 1632 by Galileo, this work proving the heliocentric theory brought him before the Roman Inquisition. While he was devout in his religious faith, he contended that the Bible was not a reliable authority on scientific matters. The Church would tolerate the heliocentric theory as long as it was just an hypothesis, but Galileo's work proved it. This publication was placed on the Index of Prohibited Books. Galileo was forced to recant in a public hearing but is said to have muttered, referring to the earth, "And yet it does move," as he walked away. He was then placed under house arrest for the remainder of his life.
Sir Isaac Newton
(1642-1727): son of an English farmer, Newton's genius won him early recognition, and he became a professor of mathematics at Cambridge University while he was still in his twenties. Working independently of one another, both Newton and Leibniz, a German philosopher (Pangloss in Candide - HAVE MS. H EXPLAIN THIS TO YOU!!!!!!) and mathematician, discovered differential and integral calculus.
He shared the belief of other scientists that the physical universe was governed by natural laws. He solved the one great unanswered question remaining from the work of Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo: What is it that causes the planets, stars and other heavenly bodies to move in an orderly fashion? He set forth the explanation in the LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION using mathematical proof(calculus) and published this all in his PRINCIPIA MATHEMATICA (MATHEMATICAL PRINICPLES OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY) of 1687 which also contained laws of light and color, and of motion. His findings proposed a physical universe marked by balance, uniformity, rationality and harmony. Newton's work provided the foundation of modern physics and would stand unmodified until the 20th century and the work of physicists such as Albert Einstein. He is undoubtedly the greatest genius in the Age of Genius(17th century).
theory of the sun-centered universe first proposed by Copernicus and later added to by Kepler and proved by Galileo. Replaced the Aristotelian and Ptolemaic view of the universe which was geocentric(earth-centered).