An influence process; normally to influence people to achieve a common goal.
1. It is a responsibility and a process that consists of an observable, understandable, learnable set of skills and practices available to everyone, anywhere in the organization. 2.Leadership involves creating a vision for the future, devising strategy for achieving that vision, and communicating the vision so that everyone understands and believes in it.
Traits and skills focus
Assumes that some people have certain physical characteristics (such as height and appearance), aspects of personality (such as self-esteem, dominance, conscientiousness, and emotional stability) and aptitudes (such as general intelligence, verbal fluency, and creativity) that cause them to be successful leaders.
Examines what effective leaders do rather than what effective leaders are.
Involves things such as setting performance goals, planning and scheduling work, coordinating activities, giving directions, setting standards, providing resources, and supervising worker performance.
Involves things such as showing empathy for concerns and feelings, being supportive of needs, showing trust, demonstrating appreciation, establishing trusting relationships, and allowing subordinates to participate in decision making.
The ability to use human, informational, or material resources to get something done. Authority is the right to get something done and is officially sanctioned.
Power derived from opportunities inherent in a position in an organization.
Name four types of position power
Legitimate power, Coercive power, Reward power, and Information power.
Power that stems from formal authority.
The power to discipline, punish, and withhold rewards.
The power to control tangible benefits, such as a promotion, a better job, better work schedule, a larger operating budget, an increased expense account, and formal recognition of accomplishments.
Power based on control of information.
Power derived from the interpersonal relationship between leaders and followers.
What the two types of personal power?
Expert power and Referent power
The power to influence another person because of expert knowledge and competence.
The ability to influence others based on personal liking, charisma, and reputation. It is manifested through imitation or emulation.
Personalized power orientation
Associated with a strong need for esteem and status; power is often used impulsively.
Socialized power orientation
Is represented by leaders who are mature, exercise power more for the benefit of others than for themselves, are less egoistic and defensive, and are willing to take advice from others in the organization. Makes subordinates feel strong and responsible.
A paradigm known as self-leadership founded on creating an organization of leaders who are ready to lead themselves.
Effective self-leaders have what characteristics?
a. the capacity to motivate themselves and stay focused on tasks. b. integrity that demands both loyalty to the organization and the willingness to act according to beliefs. c. understanding of the organization and their contributions to it. d. willingness to take the initiative to deal with problems. e. versatility, skillfulness, and flexibility to adapt to a changing environment. f. responsibility for their own careers, actions, and development
Things that guide or influence people in place of a leader. Variables, individual, task, and organizational characteristics that tend to outweigh the leader's ability to affect subordinate satisfaction and performance.
A condition that counteracts leader behavior or prevents the leader from having an effect on a follower or a specific situation.
The situational leadership model
Based on the interaction of certain employee characteristics, referred to as readiness, and leadership style, based on the concern for the task and the concern for the employee.
The extent to which a subordinate possesses the ability, knowledge, and skills, job experience, and willingness to complete a specific task.
Provides specific instructions and closely supervises performance. This style works best when readiness is low.
Explains decisions and provides opportunities for clarification. This style works best when employees are competent but not yet willing to take on responsibility.
Involves sharing ideas and maintaining two-way communication to encourage and support the skills employees have developed. This style works best when readiness is moderate.
Provides subordinates with minimal directions and support for the relationship. This style works best when readiness is high.
Delegating authority to the follower and holding him or her accountable. It is the interaction of the leader who is giving up or sharing power with those who use it to become involved and committed to independent, high-quality performance. Successful empowerment means everyone in the organization truly understands his or her role in achieving the mission of the organization, has the skills, information, and motivation to make good decisions, is held accountable, and receives appropriate rewards for successful performance.
Leader's ability to influence employees to achieve more than was originally expected or thought possible.
Name the four dimensions of transformational leadership?
Individualized consideration, Intellectual stimulation, Inspirational motivation, and Idealized influence
Emotional intelligence (EI)
The capacity to effectively manage ourselves and our relationships.
Refers to the ability to understand your own feelings and emotions and their impact, and to understand your strengths and weaknesses.
Refers to the ability to understand what others are feeling, and having the skills to work effectively with others.
Gender and Leadership - Women
Female leaders tend to be more empathetic, persuasive, better listeners, and more willing to consider others' points of view than are male leaders. They tend to internalize pain and distress.
Gender and Leadership - Men
Male leaders tend to show higher levels of resilience and thoroughness than do female leaders. They tend to externalize pain and distress.
Leaders of the Future (Discuss)
1. Leaders will be challenged to interact effectively with a diversity of partners and other businesses and within the context of differing cultures more than ever before. 2. Individuals working in 21st-century organizations must be innovative and creative, practice continuous learning, have ["positive"] values, have a personal vision, be in charge of their own careers, motivate from within, plan, communicate, and seek harmonious relationships with stakeholders.
The following ten principles will help managers develop effective leadership skills.
1. Know yourself. 2. Be a role model. 3. Learn to communicate with your ears open and your mouth shut. 4. Know your team and be a team player. 5. Be honest with yourself as well as with others. 6. Do not avoid risks. 7. Believe in yourself. 8. Take the offense rather than the defense. 9. Know the ways of disagreement and the means of compromise. 10. Be a good follower.