Lymphatic System

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A major function of the lymphatic system is:

return of tissue fluid to the cardiovascular system.

Approximately three liters of fluid are picked up each day.

Aggregates of lymphoid nodules located in the wall of the ileum are:

Peyer's patches.

Peyer's patches prevent bacteria from migrating through the wall of the intestine.

Collections of lymphoid tissue (MALT) that guard mucosal surfaces include all the following, except:

the thymus.

The thymus is the site of T cell maturation.

In addition to its lymphoid function, this organ holds a reservoir of platelets.

Spleen

It also removes old and damaged red blood cells.

The structural framework of lymphoid tissue is offered by:

reticular connective tissue.

This tissue dominates in all lymphoid organs, except the thymus.

This structure, attached to the cecum, is in an ideal location to destroy bacteria before it migrates into the large intestine.

Appendix

This appendix extends from the cecum.

What lymphatic structure absorbs excess tissue fluid?

Capillary

They have pressure-sensitive valves.

What lymphatic structure absorbs lipids in the intestine?

Lacteal

Lacteals are located in the intestinal villi.

What lymphatic structures trap bacteria in the posterior oral mucosa?

Palatine tonsils

The palatine tonsils are most often infected.

Which of the following are located in the spleen's white pulp?

Lymphocytes

Which sequence best describes the flow of lymph through the lymphatic system?

Capillaries, vessels, trunks, ducts

Capillaries pick up lymph and ducts return it to the cardiovascular system.

Which statement below describes the lymphatic system's role in relation to the cardiovascular system?

It maintains blood volume and, hence, pressure.

As much as three liters of lymph must be returned to the blood volume each day.

Which statement is true of the thoracic duct?

It drains the lymph from the entire left side of the body and the right abdomen and leg.

The thoracic duct drains its lymph at the junction of the left internal jugular and subclavian veins.

Which statement is true about lymph nodes?

They have fewer efferent vessels than afferent (incoming) vessels.

This slows the flow of the lymph through the node.

Which of the following best describes the arrangement of lymphatic vessels?

A one-way system of vessels beginning with blind-ended lymphatic capillaries

The lymphatic vessels form a one-way system in which lymph flows only toward the heart. It begins as blind-ended capillaries.

Which of the following is the major lymphoid organ that "trains" T lymphocytes to become immunocompetent?

Thymus

T cells develop in the thymus.

Which of the following are the principle lymphoid organs in the body?

Lymph nodes

Which cluster along the lymphatic vessels of the body.

The lymphoid organs located in the throat that defend against invading bacteria coming in through the mouth and nose are:

tonsils.

The tonsils form a ring of lymphatic tissue around the entrance to the pharynx.

Which of the following statements about the spleen is FALSE?

It is best to perform a splenectomy if the spleen is damaged in a car accident.

Which of the following vessels transport fluid that leaks from the vascular system back into the blood?

Lymphatics

Excess tissue fluid in the brain drains into the:

CSF.

Lymphangitis presents itself as:

red lines under the skin that are sensitive to touch.

Which of the following features is NOT common to both lymphatic collecting ducts and veins?

Chyle

Only lymphatic collecting ducts transport chyle, which is a term for fatty lymph.

When B lymphocytes are dividing rapidly, the _____ of the lymphoid tissue enlarges.

germinal centers

When B lymphocytes are dividing rapidly, the germinal centers of the lymphoid tissue enlarges.

Where are plasma cells found in the node?

In the medullary cords

Large lymph capillaries spanned by crisscrossing reticular fibers are known as:

lymph sinuses.

Trabeculae in the lymph node are strands of connective tissue from the capsule that divide the lymph node into compartments.

Which of the following cells would not be found in a germinal center in a lymph node?

Monocytes

Areas of lymphocytes suspended by reticular fibers in the spleen are known as:

white pulp.

A sentinel node is the first lymph node:

that receives lymph drainage from a body area suspected of cancer.

Where is the site of erythrocyte production in the fetus?

Spleen

T/F - Germinal centers in follicles are sites where B lymphocytes proliferate and produce antibodies.

True

These areas usually appear lighter staining than surrounding areas.

T/F - Lymph capillaries are structurally identical to blood capillaries.

False

Lymph capillaries have minivalves and their endothelial wall cells are loosely joined.

T/F - Lymph occurs as a result of the inability of blood capillaries to reabsorb all the filtered plasma volume.

True

The lymphatic system must transport the volume back to the cardiovascular system.

T/F - Lymphoid macrophages respond to antigens by producing antibodies.

False

Macrophages are phagocytes.

T/F - Our four sets of tonsils protect against pathogens entering the body through the pharynx.

True

We have lingual, pharyngeal, palatine, and tubal tonsils.

T/F - Red-pulp areas within the spleen are full of lymphocytes suspended on reticular tissue.

False

Red-pulp areas contain blood vessels, macrophages, and RBCs.

T/F - The flow of lymph occurs by the same mechanisms as does venous blood flow.

True

These mechanisms involve the respiratory pump, valves, and muscle actions.

T/F - The only function of the spleen is lymphatic.

False

The spleen provides a store of platelets and recycles hemoglobin.

T/F - The right bronchomediastinal trunk drains into the thoracic duct.

False

It drains into the right lymphatic duct.

T/F - The thymus gland reaches its maximal activity level late in life.

False

The thymus is most important early in life.

T/F - The exact pattern of the lymphoid tissues differs in the various lymphoid organs.

True

All lymphoid organs are discrete, encapsulated collections of diffuse lymphoid tissue and follicles, but the exact pattern of the lymphoid tissues differs in the various lymphoid organs.

T/F - The lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes do NOT appear until shortly before birth.

False

The beginnings of the lymphatic vessels and the main clusters of lymph nodes are apparent by the fifth week of embryonic development.

T/F - Lymphoid organs are composed of reticular connective tissue.

True

The common feature of all the lymphoid organs is the tissue makeup. All are composed of reticular connective tissue.

T/F - Lymphoid cells include macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes.

True

All three types of cells are lymphoid in nature.

T/F - MALT is found in the bronchi.

False

The lymphatic tissue found in the respiratory system is called BALT (bronchial associated lymphatic tissue)

T/F - Interstitial fluid and lymph are identical except for their respective locations in the body.

True

What part of the lymphatic system is most closely associated with capillary beds?

Lymphatic collecting vessels

How are lymphatic collecting vessels different from veins?

Lymphatic collecting vessels have endothelial flap valves, but veins do not.

All lymph is eventually returned to circulation via the:

subclavian veins.

Which of the following is not a function of lymphatic vessels?

Delivery of nutrients to tissues

Plasma cell

Produces antibodies
Activated B cells, called plasma cells, are responsible for producing antibodies.

Macrophage

Phagocytic cell
Macrophages are phagocytic cells that help to defend the body.

Dendritic cell

Captures antigens and presents them to lymph nodes
Dendritic cells are especially efficient at capturing antigens and presenting them to lymph nodes.

Reticular cell

Fibroblast-like cell that produces the reticular fiber stroma
Reticular cells are fibroblast-like cells that produce the reticular fiber stroma.

T/F - Reticular connective tissue is found in all lymphoid organs and tissues.

False

The thymus is the single lymphoid organ that does not contain reticular connective tissue.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of lymph nodes?

Lymph nodes produce lymph.

Which of the following lists the correct order of lymph flow through the lymph node?

Afferent vessel, subcapsular sinus, medulla, efferent vessel

Which of the following is not a role of the spleen?

Serve as a site of T cell maturation.

The spleen serves as an immune system surveillance organ; it also stores platelets and breaks down erythrocytes. There are plenty of T cells in the white pulp of the spleen, but the T cells do not mature there; the exclusive role of the thymus is to foster T cell maturation.

Choose the true statement about the thymus.

After puberty, the thymus begins to decrease in size.

The main role of the tonsils is to:

gather and remove pathogens entering through the pharynx.

Which of the following is not a part of the mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)?

The spleen

Except for the _____ and the spleen, the lymphoid organs are poorly developed at birth.

tonsils

Only the tonsils and the spleen are well developed by birth. Shortly after birth the other lymphoid tissues and organs become populated by lymphocytes, and their development parallels the maturation of the immune system.

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