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first line of defense

includes physical barriers, chemical barriers, and genetic components

second line of defense

includes inflammatory response, interferons, phagocytosis, complement

first line of defense

is a surface protection composed of anatomical and physiological barriers that keep microbes from penetrating sterile body compartments

second line of defense

a cellular and chemical system that comes into play if infectious agents make it past the surface defenses

second line of defense

examples include phagocytes that engulf foreign matter and destroy it, and inflammation that holds infections in check

third line of defense

includes specific host defenses that must be developed uniquely for each microbe through the action of specialized white blood cells. This form of immunity is usually long term and has memory

constitutive defenses

always on guard, but do not improve with repeated exposures

lysozyme

nonspecific chemical defense in tears

physical barriers

what is the main component of our first line of defense

lysis

the effect of lysozyme treatment on Staphylococcus cells is that it leads to cell

immunology

the study of all features of the body's second and third lines of defense

white blood cells

distinguish self from nonself cells

reticuloendothelial system

a passageway within and between tissues and organs

mononuclear phagocyte system

the reticuloendothelial system coexists with the

reticuloendothelial system

occurs as a pervasive, continuous connective tissue framework throughout the body

circulatory system proper

includes heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries that circulate blood (red fluid)

lymphatic system

includes lymphatic vessels and lymphatic organs (lymph nodes) that circulate lymph (colorless fluid)

whole blood

is a liquid connective tissue consisting of blood cells suspended in a fluid called plasma

92%

percentage of water in plasma

hematopoeisis

production of blood cells, relatively short life

pluripotential stem cells

primary precursor of new blood cells located in the marrow

erythrocytes

red blood cells aka

leukocytes

white blood cells aka

thrombocytes

platelets aka

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

granulocytes are WBCs that include

monocytes and lymphocytes

agranulocytes are WBCs that include

neutrophils

phagocytosis

eosinophils

attack and destroy large eukaryotic pathogens, also involved in inflammation and allergic reactions

basophils

parallel eosinophils in many actions (histamin)

monocytes

blood phagocytes that later become macrophages

lymphocytes

primary cells involved in immune reactions

monocytes; macrophages

__ are discharged by bone marrow into bloodstream, live as phagocytes for a few days, then leave blood and differentiate into __

dendritic cells

relatives of macrophages that reside in tissues and RES. Process foreign matter and present to lymphocytes

lymphocytes

key cells in the third line of defense and the specific immune response

B and T cells

two types of lymphocytes

B cells

humoral immunity; produce specialized plasma cells which produce antibodies

humoral immunity

protective molecules carried in the fluids of the body

t cells

cell-mediated immunity. Modulate immune functions and kill foreign cells

natural killer cells

related to T cells, antigen nonspecific and active against cancerous and virus infected cells

erythrocytes

develop from stem cells in the bone marrow. Lose their nucleus just prior to entering circulation

erythrocytes

transport oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the tissues

platelets

formed elements in circulating blood. Not whole cells.

platelets

function primarily in hemostatis and in releasing chemicals for blood clotting and inflammation

lymphatic system

compartmentalized network of vessels, cells, and specialized accessory organs (lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, lymphoid tissues, GALT)

provide auxiliary route, act as drain-off, render surveillance, recognition, and protection

major functions of the lymphatic system

lymph

plasmalike liquid formed when certain blood components move out of blood vessels into the extracellular spaces and diffuse or migrate into the lymphatic capillaries

composition

parallels that of plasma, but without RBC

one direction only from extremities to heart

flow of lymph is

GALT

gut associated lymphoid tissue

axillary, inguinal, cervical

major aggregations of lymph nodes

spleen

similar to a lymph node except it filters blood instead of lymph

pathogens

spleen filters __ from the blood

thymus

originates in the embryo. High rates of activity and growth until puberty, then shrinks gradually thru adulthood

thymic hormones

__ help thymocytes develop specificity to be released as mature T cells

MALT

mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue

SALT

skin-associated lymphoid tissue

BALT

bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue

rubor

redness

calor

warmth

tumor

swelling

dolor

pain

loss of function

5th symptom of inflammatory response

inflammation

mobilize and attract immune components to the site of the injury

inflammation

set in motion mechanisms to repair tissue damage and localize and clear away harmful substances

inflammation

destroy microbes and block their further invasion

edema

leakage of vascular fluid into tissues

exudates

the fluid that escapes thru gaps in the walls of postcapillary venules

edema

accumulation of exudates causes

serous

clear

pus

edema that contains RBCs

diapedesis

how WBCs leave the blood vessels and into tissue spaces

chemotaxis

the tendency of WBCs to migrate in response to a specific chemical stimulus

B lymphocytes

produce antibodies

T lymphocytes

kill intruders directly

scar

late in the process of inflammation the tissue is repaired or replaced by connective tissue, called a

fever

an adjunct to inflammation where there is an abnormally elevated body temperature

fever of unknown origin

FUO

pyrogen

sets the hypothalamic thermostat to a higher setting

pyrogens

can be exogenous or endogenous

fever

inhibits multiplication, impedes nutrition of bacteria, and increases metabolism and stimulates immune reactions

phagocytosis

cornerstone of inflammation and specific immunity

phagocytes

survey the tissue compartments and discover microbes, particulate matter, and injured or dead cells. Ingest and eliminate these materials

neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages

3 main types of phagocytes

engulfment

what step of phagocytosis do microbial capsules interfere with the most

interferon

antiviral cytokines and immune stimulants

interferon

involved against viruses, other microbes, in immune regulation and intercommunication

alpha, beta, gamma

3 major types of interferons

complement

a versatile backup system

complement

a special chemical defense found in serum

26

complement has at least __ blood proteins that work in concert to destroy bacteria and certain viruses

classical, lectin, alternative

3 different pathways of complement that all yield to similar end results

complement

main functions are opsonization, chemotaxis, and pore formation

membrane attack

in complement cascade, a large donut shaped enzyme that punctures a pore thru the membrane leading to cell lysis

extracellular

complement is most effective against __ pathogens

lysozyme in saliva

an example of a nonspecific chemical barrier to infection is

neutrophils

blood cells that function primarily as phagocytes

agranular; macrophages

monocytes are __ leukocytes that develop into __

connection between tissues and organs

the main function of reticuloendothelial system is to provide

edema

the leakage of vascular fluid into tissues is called

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