N201 Unit 3 - 4

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BMTCP 210

barrel

the graduated tubular outer portion of the syringe; he outer wall of the barrel has a scale calibrated in mL's or minims and the inner wall must remain sterile

bevel

the distal, tapered open end of the shaft of the needle; must remain sterile

gauge

the diameter of the needle lumen

hilt

the junction between the hub and shaft; must remain sterile

hub

the wide base portion of the needle that fits over the syringe tip

knob

the distal end of the plunger; the only part of the plunger which can be touched in order to maintain sterility

lumen

the hollow inside diameter of the shaft of a needle

needle guard

cap that protects the needle and helps maintain sterility

prefilled medication cartridge

commercially prepared single dose medication that has a needle permanently attached to a calibrated barrel

plunger

the solid inner movable portion of a syringe that is pushed within the barrel, via the knob, to administer liquid medication

safety syringes

syringe that comes with the needle already attached and is equipped with a retraction device that retracts the needle into the syringe once the injection is complete

Shaft

the long, cylindrical hollow tube of the needle

tip

the small end of the syringe that fits into the needle hub when assembling the needle and syringe together; it must remain sterile

vial

glass or plastic container that has a self-sealing rubber stopper

deltoid muscle

allows only small amounts of medication to be injected; avoid hitting the humerus

vastus lateralis

muscle located on the anterior lateral aspect of the thigh

rectus femoris

located on the anterior aspect of thigh and can be used for IM injection

ventrogluteral muscle

located on the side of the hip, just below the iliac crest

dorsogluteal muscle

located in the upper, outer quadrant of the gluteal muscle

air lock technique

clears the needle of medication and seals the track so that the medication does not flow back into the subcutaneous tissue

z-track method

reduces pain caused by irritating drugs that leak or escape along the track into the subcutaneous tissue when the needle is withdrawn

parenteral administration

medication administration routes not via the GI tract, which requires the use of a syringe and needle or intravenous catheter to introduce medication into the body tissues

indications of parenteral administration

patient can't take medications by mouth, hasten the action of the drug, digestive juices would counteract the effect of the drug given

accurate dose and route of medication

it is essential to observe this precaution when administering parenteral medication

correct site

to prevent damage to tissue when injections are given

sterile equipment and aseptic thechnique

to prevent infection,this is one of the essential precaution to observe when administering parenteral drug

3 mL

syringe size large enough for most subcutaneous and intramscular injections

U-100

used to give insulin, needle is part of the syringe and not removable

1 mL

tuberculin syringe is used to give small doses

needles

are the metal tube through which liquid medication flows

hub

part of the needle which fits onto the end of a syringe

hollow shaft

also called cannula

bevel

slanted part of the needle

lumen

inner part of the cannula

filter needles

used when preparing medications from an ampule

subQ injection

involves the administration of a medication to the loose connective tissues that lie between the epidermis and the muscle

0.5 - 1 mL

amount of fluid the subQ space can tolerate

sciatic nerve

the greatest risk in dorsogluteal muscle parenteral admin is the damage to this

ID injection

involves injecting a medication into the dermis where blood supply is reduced and absorption is slower than in an IM and subQ

IM injection

is the administration of a solution containing medication into a muscle or muscle group

0.5 - 3 inches

in orderf to penetrate the muscle, the needle length used is ____ in length

18 - 27 G

in order to penetrate the muscle, the needle gauge used is _____ in diameter

heparin and allergy shots

contraindication of massaging the insection site

slowly injecting

irritation can be reduced by _______ the medication

massaging

reduces irritation and stimulates absorption of the medication

subQ injection

used for injecting small amounts and given in the upper portion of the back of the arm, anterior thigh or abdomen

45 to 90 degree

needle is inserted at a ______ angle depending on the size of the needle and the individual

30-60 min

check parenteral administrated medication to asses for desired effect or adverse effects at this time

90 degree

needle is inserted in adults at this angle, when administrating IM injections

15 min

onset of action of IM injections occurs within _____

3 mL

never administer IM injections more than ___ at a time at any site

0.2 mL

add this much air behind the solution for air lock technique IM injections

chemical name

describes the chemical make-up of a drug

contraindication

any condition for which administration of a drug is undesirable or the administration may produce undesirable effects when administered with another drug

drug

any chemical compound, other than food, used in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of disease

drug hypersensitivity

allergy - abnormal reaction or sensitivity to a drug

generic name

describes the principle ingredients; the formal name of the drug

indication

disease or condition for which a drug is prescribed

maximum dose

largest quantity that can be given without probable harmful effects

pharmacology

the scientific study of the origin, nature, and effects of drugs

physician's desk reference

PDR - a comprehensive book listing of drug products for medical professionals

side effect

action or effect other than desired

therapeutics

treatment of disease

toxicology

scientific study of the nature and effects of toxic substances

trade/brand name

name created by the manufacturer; it indicates the name is registered and protected by law;

usual/therapeutic dose

amount of a drug necessary to produce a desired effect

antidysrhythmics

prevention or correction of irregular heart rhythms

antihypertensives

controls high blood pressure

anticoagulants

inhibits clotting of blood

antacid

used to neutralize acidity in the digestive system

antiflatulant

used for excess gas in the intestinal tract

nonopioid analgesics

relieves pain and inflammation

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories

NSAIDS - counteraction of body tissue inflammation

anti-infectives

inhibits growth of or destroys microoganisms

vaccines and toxoids

artificially induced immunity to a specific disease or toxin

local anesthetic agent

produce numbness in local area

antipsychotic agent

improves or moderates mental symptoms ranging from anxiety to psychosis

antidiabtes - 2 types

insulin and oral hypoglycemics

insulin

decreases blood sugar by transport of glucose into the body tissues and cells

oral hypoglycemics

regulates amount of glucose in the blood

cathartics

acts as a cleanser that produces watery evacuation of intestinal contents through increased peristalsis

stool softerners

promotes bowel movement by adding water and/or bulk to stool

antiemetics

prevention or relief of nausea/vomiting

antidiarrheal

control of diarrhea

meniscus

the curved upper surface of a liquid in a container. The curve may be concave (rounded down) or convex (rounded up).

scored medication

is a tablet with a line in the center, indicating that the medicine is equally divided if it needs to be cut in half

enema

a rectal injection for therapeutic, diagnostic, or nutritive purposes

inhaled medication

a medication which is breathed in or inhaled

antidysrythmics

side-effects:drowsiness, confusion, seizures, bradychardia, example: lidocaine or atropine

antihypertensives

side-effects: hypotension, bradychardia, lightheaded, dizziness, example: atenol, lisinopril

anticoagulants

side-effects: hemorrhage, diarrhea, rash, fever, example: warfarin, heparin

antacid

side-effects: constipations, arrythmias - IV only, example:aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, zantac

antiflatulants

side-effects: bloating,constipation, diarrhea example:simethicone, mylicon

nonopioid analgesics (non-narcotic)

side-effects: headache or mild GI disturbance, example:aspirin, acetaminophen

nonsteriodal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDS)

side-effects: drowsiness or fluid retention, example:Ibuprofen, naproxen

anti-infectives (antibiotics)

side-effects: mild to severe allergic reaction, nausea, diarrhea, example: panicillin, tetracycline, bacitracin

vaccines and toxoids

side-effects: site pain, example: tetanus, hep A

toxoids

diptheria

vaccines

influenza

local anesthestic agents

side-effects: local irritation or possible systemic effects, example: xylocaine

antipsychotic agent

side-effects: confusion, drowsiness, example:zyprexia, clozapine, risperdal

insulin

side-effects: hypoglycemia, anaphylaxis, example: Novolin

oral hypoglycemics

side-effects: hypolycemia, headache, nausea, example:glucophage, glyburide

stool softeners

side-effects: nausea, vomiting, hypotension, example: docusate

cathartics

side-effects: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, example: bisacodyl

antiemetics

side-effects: drowsiness, constipation, example: promethazine, metoclopramide

antidiarrheal

side-effects: constipation, blurred vision, example:loperamide, kalin, pectin

condition of the patient, nature of the drug, rate of absorption

factors affecting the routes of medication

mucous membrane & topical medication

2 types of mucosal medication administration

direct application of liquid or ointment

mucus membrane medicaiton administration such as eye drops, gargling or swabbing

installation of fluid

mucus membrane medication administration such as eye, ear or nose drops

spraying

mucus membrane medication administration such as nose and throat spray

irrigation of cavity

mucus membrane medication administration such as flushing an eye, ear, vagina, bladder or rectum with a medicated fluid

inserting medication

mucus membrane medication administration such as suppositories into a body cavity such as rectum or vagina

topical medication administration

usually given for direct effect on tissue, and may have a local or systemic effect, depending on the medication given

drops

apply medication to center of lower conjunctival sac

ointments

apply the _________ in a thin strip along the lower eyelid from the inner canthus to the outer canthus

first, last

if both drops and ointments are ordered instill drops _______ and ointments ________

adult

when administering otic medication on a _____ pull on the top of the ear up and back

child

when administering otic medication on a _____ pull on the lower half down and back

20 min

instruct patient to hold the rectal suppository in place for this long

5 min

instruct the patient to remain on side or back for this long when administering rectal suppository

1-2 min

instillation of enema should take _____ with a gentle pressure

2-8 min

enema results in this time frame

5-15 min

check on patient ______ after administration of enema

peak expiratory flow

useful for patients with asthma to estimate lung capacity

measured to determine if respiratory medication therapy is achieving results

purpose of peak flow

Nebulizer

used to deliver bronchodilators to the lung relieve bronchospasms

to help patients having difficulty bringing up mucous secretions

purpose of nebulizer

5-15 min

turn off air compressor/oxygen when all meds are administered, approx _______

absorption

the passage of medication molecules into the blood from the site of administration

adverse effect

an effect of a drug which may be unfavorable to the patient's health; an action or effect, other than that which is desired, such as an allergic reaction

ampule

made of glass with restricted neck that is pre-scored to be broken easily; contains sterile solution

diluent

a substance capable of dissolving a drug and holding it in a solution

dilute

to diminish the strength of a mixture by adding another substance

distribution

how the drug is transported by the blood to the site of action. It requires adequate cardiac output and tissue perfusion

excretion

how the drugs and metabolites are eliminated from the body through the kidney, liver, lungs and GI tract

floor stock

a drug storage system in which individual patient medicine doses are prepared from bulk stock by ward personnel

medication administration record (MAR)

a sheet used for documentation listing medications prescribed and times to be given

medication interaction

when a medication may potentiate or diminish the actions of other medications

metabolism

the conversion of the drug to an inactive and harmless form that can be excreted through the lungs, kidneys, and liver, GI tract

parenteral administration

injecting a medication into body tissues

pharmacist

a person licensed to prepare and dispense drugs

provider

is person licensed to prescribe medications such as a physician, physician assistant, or nurse practitioner

reconstitution

restoring a dehydrated substance to its previous liquid form by adding liquid

side effect

an unintended secondary effect of a medication

solute

a medication which can be dissolved in liquid

therapeutic effect

an expected or predictable physiological response to medication

unit dose system

a drug storage system that employs pharmacy control in supplying individual doses of drugs for each patient

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