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Recessive

gene that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its allele is identical

Genotypes

the version of genes someone has. (Not visible)

Heterozygous

two different versions of that trait

Homozygous

two of the same trait

Dominant

gene that produces the same phenotype in an organism whether or not the allele is identical

Testcross

method of determining genotype

Monohybrid experiments

testcrosses that check for a dominance relationship between two alleles at a single locus

Punnett Squares

used to calculate the probability of a genotype

Law of Segregation

"Diploid cells have pairs of genes, or pairs of homologous chromosomes. The two genes of each pair are separated from one another during meiosis, so they end up in different gametes."

Dihybrid crosses

done to determine dominance relationship between alleles at two loci

law of Independant Assortment

"Genes are sorted into gametes independently of other genes"

Codominance

two nonidentical alleles of a gene are both fully expressed in heterozygotes, so neither is dominant or recessive

Incomplete Dominance

one allele of a pair isnt fully dominant over its partner, so heterzygote's phenotype is between that of the homozygotes

Epistasis

Interactions between different gene products.

Pleiotrophy

one gene that influences multiple traits

Fibrilin

fibers that give elasticity to tissues of heart, skin, blood vessels, tendons, and other body parts.

Linkage Groups

all genes on a chromosome

Tyrosinase

enzyme that affects the coat color of Himalayan rabbits

Continuous Variation

other traits that occur in a range of small differences

bell curve

the type of curve if a trait shows continuous variation

Camptodactyly

finger shape and movement are abnormal

Karyotyping

diagnostic tool that helps determine the individual's diploid set of chromosomes

Acondroplasia

cartilage model of skeleton doesnt form properly. caused by an autosomal dominant allele

Huntington's Disease

involuntary muscle movements increase as nervous system deteriorates. Caused by an autosomal dominant allele

Galactosemia

Malnutrition, diarrhea, vomiting, damage to eyes, liver and brain, eventual death. caused by a recessive autosomal inheritance

Progeria

mutated allele produces hutchinson-gilfork progeria syndrome. accelerated rate of aging and short life span.

Hemophilia A

x-linked recessive disorder; interferes with blood clotting.

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

muscle degeneration. genes of X encodes dystrophin, structural/support protein muscle cells

Duplications

normal chromosomes have DNA sequences that are duplicated several times

Deletion

loss of some portion of a chromosome

Cri-du-chat

(cry of the cat) deletion of chromosome 5 causes mental impairment and an abnormally shaped larynx

inversion

part of the DNA sequence within the chromosome becomes oriented in the reverse direction, with no loss

Translocation

part of a broken chromosome attaches to a different chromosome or to a different part of the same one

polyploid

cells that normally have 3+ types of each chromosomes

nondisjunction

1+ pairs of chromosomes do not seperate properly during mitosis or meiosis

Down syndrome

only tricomis individuals who reach adulthood. upward slanting eyes, deep crease across sole of foot and palm of hand. moderate to severe mental impairment and heart problems

Klienfelter's syndrome(XXY)

outcome of nondisjunction. feminizing effects: small testes and prostate glands, low sperm count, sparse body hair, enlarged breasts

XYY syndrome

taller than average, mild mental temperament

Prenatal

before birth

embryo

up to 8 weeks after fertilization

fetus

8+ weeks after fertilization

Amniocentesis

a syringe withfraws 20mL of amniotic fluid, which contains shed fetal cells and fetal waste

genetic screening

routine testing for alleles associated with genetic disorders. provides info on reproduction risks

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