gene that produces the same phenotype in an organism whether or not the allele is identical
testcrosses that check for a dominance relationship between two alleles at a single locus
Law of Segregation
"Diploid cells have pairs of genes, or pairs of homologous chromosomes. The two genes of each pair are separated from one another during meiosis, so they end up in different gametes."
law of Independant Assortment
"Genes are sorted into gametes independently of other genes"
two nonidentical alleles of a gene are both fully expressed in heterozygotes, so neither is dominant or recessive
one allele of a pair isnt fully dominant over its partner, so heterzygote's phenotype is between that of the homozygotes
fibers that give elasticity to tissues of heart, skin, blood vessels, tendons, and other body parts.
cartilage model of skeleton doesnt form properly. caused by an autosomal dominant allele
involuntary muscle movements increase as nervous system deteriorates. Caused by an autosomal dominant allele
Malnutrition, diarrhea, vomiting, damage to eyes, liver and brain, eventual death. caused by a recessive autosomal inheritance
mutated allele produces hutchinson-gilfork progeria syndrome. accelerated rate of aging and short life span.
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
muscle degeneration. genes of X encodes dystrophin, structural/support protein muscle cells
(cry of the cat) deletion of chromosome 5 causes mental impairment and an abnormally shaped larynx
part of the DNA sequence within the chromosome becomes oriented in the reverse direction, with no loss
part of a broken chromosome attaches to a different chromosome or to a different part of the same one
only tricomis individuals who reach adulthood. upward slanting eyes, deep crease across sole of foot and palm of hand. moderate to severe mental impairment and heart problems
outcome of nondisjunction. feminizing effects: small testes and prostate glands, low sperm count, sparse body hair, enlarged breasts
a syringe withfraws 20mL of amniotic fluid, which contains shed fetal cells and fetal waste