Art & Design Fundamentals 211 Chap. 1-2 Quiz

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Abstraction

a process or visual effect characterized by the simplification and/or rearrangement of the image

Accent

any stress or emphasis given to the elements of a composition that brings them more attention than other features that surround or are close to them; accent can be created by a brighter color, a darker value, greater size, or any other means by which a difference is expressed

Addition

a sculptural term that means building up, assembling, or putting on material

Aesthetic

sensitive to art or beauty; "aesthetically pleasing" implies intellectual or visual beauty (i.e., creative, eloquent, or expressive qualities of form, as opposed to the mere recording of facts in visual, descriptive, or objective ways)

Aesthetics

the study or theory of beauty—traditionally a branch of philosophy but now a compound of the philosophy, psychology, and sociology of art—dealing with the definition, inspiration, intent, forms, and psychological effects of art and beauty

Allover Pattern

a design that is formed through the systematic repetition of smaller designed units over an entire surface

Approximate Symmetry

the use of similar imagery on either side of a central axis; the visual material on one side may resemble that on the other but is varied to prevent visual monotony

Art

"the formal expression of a conceived image or imaged conception in terms of a given medium" (Sheldon Cheney)

Assemblage

a technique that involves grouping found or created three-dimensional objects, which are often displayed in situ—that is, in natural position or in the middle of the room rather than on a wall

Asymmetry

"without symmetry"; having unequal or non-corresponding parts; an example may be a two-dimensional artwork that, without any necessarily visible or implied axis, displays an uneven distribution of parts throughout

Atectonic

three-dimensional work characterized by considerable amounts of space; open, as opposed to massive (or tectonic), and often with extended appendages

Balance

a sense of equilibrium between areas of implied weight, attention, attraction, or moments of force; one of the principles of organization

Bauhaus

originally a German school of architecture that flourished between World War I and World War II; the Bauhaus attracted many leading experimental artists of both two- and three-dimensional fields

Casting

a sculptural technique which liquid materials are shaped by being poured into a mold; this technique is also known as substitution

Closure

a concept from Gestalt psychology in which the mind perceives and incomplete pattern or information to be a complete, unified whole; the artist provides minimum visual clues, and the observer brings them to final recognition

Composition

the arranging and/r structuring of all the art elements, according to the principles of organization, that achieves a unified whole; often used interchangeably with the term design

Concept

1. a comprehensive idea or generalization; 2. an idea that brings diverse elements into a basic relationship

Conceptual Artists

artists who focus on the idea, or "concept," of the work and are much more concerned with conveying a message or analyzing an idea than with the final product

Conceptual Perception

creative vision derived from the imagination; the opposite of optical perception

Content

the expression, essential meaning, significance, or aesthetic value of a work of art; content refers to the sensory, subjective, psychological, or emotional properties we feel in a work of art, as opposed to our perception of its descriptive aspects alone

Craftsmanship

aptitude, skill, or quality workmanship in the use of tools and materials

Cubism

the name given to the painting style invented by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque between 1907 and 1912, which uses multiple views of objects to create the effect of three-dimensionality while acknowledging the two-dimensional surface of the picture plane; signaling the beginning of abstract art, Cubism is a semiabstract style that continued the strong trend away from representational art initiated by Cézanne in the late 1800s

Decorative

the tow-dimensional nature of an artwork or any of its elements, which emphasize the essential flatness of a surface; also has generically referred to the ornamentation or enrichment of a surface

Descriptive [Art]

a type of art that is based on adherence to actual appearances

Design

the organizing process or underlying plan on which artists base their total work; in a broader sense, design may be considered synonymous with the terms form and composition

Dominance

the principle of organization in which certain visual elements assume more importance than others within the same composition or design; some features are emphasized, and others are subordinated; dominance is often created by increased contrasts through the use of isolation, placement, direction, scale, and character

Economy

the distillation of the image to the basic essentials for clarity of presentation; one of the principles of organization

Elements of Art

line, shape, value, texture, and color—the basic ingredients the artist uses separately or in combination to produce artistic imagery; their use produces the visual language of art

Expression

1. the manifestation through artistic form of though, emotion, or quality of meaning; 2. in art, expression is synonymous with the term content

Form

1. the total appearance, organization, or inventive arrangement of all the visual elements according to the principles that will develop unity in the artwork, i.e. composition; 2. in sculpture, an also refer to the three-dimensional shape of the work

Gestalt, Gestalt Psychology

a German word for "form"; an organized whole in experience; around 1912, the Gestalt psychologists promoted the theory that explains psychological phenomena by their relationships to total forms, or Gestalten, rather than their parts; in other words, our reaction to the whole is greater than our reaction to its individual parts or characteristics, and our minds integrate and organize chaotic stimuli so that we see complete patterns and recognizable shapes

Glyptic

1. the quality of an art material like stone, wood, or metal that can be carved or engraved; 2.an art form that retains the color, tensile [flexibility], and tactile [rigidity] qualities of the material from which it was created; 3. the quality of hardness, solidity, or resistance found in carved or engraved materials

Golden Mean

"perfect" harmonious proportions that avoid extremes; the moderation between extremes

Golden Section

a traditional proportional system for visual harmony expressed when a line or area is divide into two sections so that the smaller part is to the larger as the larger is to the whole; the ratio developed is 1:1.6180, or roughly 8:13

Graphic [Art]

two-dimensional art processes such as drawing, painting, photography, printmaking, and so on that generally exist on a flat surface and can create the illusion of depth; commercial applications include posters, newspapers, books, and magazines

Harmony

a principle of organization in which parts of a composition are made to relate through commonality—repeated or shared characteristic, elements, or visual units; harmony is the opposite of variety

Installations

interior or exterior settings of media created by artists to heighten the viewers'' awareness of the environmental space

Interpenetration

the positioning of planes, objects, or shapes so that they appear to pass through each other, which locks them together within a specified area of space

Kinetic

from the Greek word kinesis, meaning "motion"; art that involves an element of random or mechanical movement

Manipulation

the sculptural technique of shaping pliable materials by hand or with the use of tools—also known as modeling

Mass

1. in graphic art, a shape that appears to stand out three-dimensionally from the space surrounding it or that appears to create the illusion of a solid body of material; 2. in the plastic arts, the physical bulk of a solid body of material

Medium, Media

the material(s) and tool(s) used by the artist to create the visual elements perceived by the viewer

Mobile

a three-dimensional, moving sculpture

Modeling

a sculptural term for shaping a pliable material

Moments of Force

the direction and degree of energy implied by the art elements in specific compositional situations; amounts of visual thrust produced by such matters as dimension, placement, and accent

Motif

a designed unit or pattern that is repeated often enough in the total composition to make it a significant or dominant feature; motif is similar to "theme" or "melody" in a musical composition

Movement

eye travel directed by visual pathways in a work of art; one of the principles of organization; movement is guided by harmonious connections, areas of variety, the placement of visual weights, areas of dominance, choices in proportions, spatial devices, and so on

Naturalism

the approach to art that is essentially a description of things visually experienced; pure naturalism would contain no personal interpretation introduced by the artist

Negative Area

the unoccupied or empty space left after the positive images have been created by the artist; consideration of the negative areas is just as important to the organization of form as the positive areas

Nonobjective/Nonrepresentational Art

a type of art that is completely imaginative, in which the elements, their organization and their treatment are entirely personalized and the image is not derived from anything visually perceived by the artist

Objective

that which is based on the physical reality of the object and reflects no personal interpretation, bias, or emotion; the opposite of subjective

Optical Perception

a purely visual experience with no exaggeration or creative interpretation of that which is seen; the opposite of conceptual perception

Organic Unity

a condition in which the components of art (subject, form, and content) are completely interdependent; though not a guarantee of "greatness," the resulting wholeness is vital to a successful work

Pattern

1. any artistic design (sometimes serving as a model for imitation); 2. a repeating element and/or design that can produce a new set of characteristics or organization

Picture Frame

the outermost limits or boundary of the picture plane

Picture Plane

the actual flat surface on which the artist executes a pictorial image; in some cases, the picture plane acts merely as a transparent plane of reference to establish the illusion of forms existing in a three-dimensional space

Plane

1.an area that is essentially two-dimensional, having height and width; 2. a two-dimensional pictorial surface that can support the illusion of advancing or receding elements; 3. a flat sculptural surface

Plastic [Art]

1. the use of the elements to create the illusion of the third dimension on a two-dimensional surface; 2. three-dimensional art forms such as architecture, sculpture, ceramics, and so on.

Positive Area

the subject—whether representational or nonrepresentational—which is produced by the art elements (shape, line, etc.) or their combination

Principles of Organization

concepts that guide the arrangement and integration of the elements in achieving a sense of visual order and overall visual unity; harmony, variety, balance, proportion, dominance, movement, and economy

Process Artists

artists who focus on the execution, or "process," of the work and are much more concerned with the technique they employ in creating the work that with the final product

Proportion

the comparative relationship of size between units or the parts of a whole; for example, the size of the Statue of Liberty's hand relates to the size of her head; proportion is one of the principles of organization

Radial

emanating from a center

Realism, movement

relates to painters like Honoré Daumier in nineteenth-century France and Winslow Homer in the United States in the 1850s

Realism, style

a style of art that emphasizes universal characteristics rather than specific information (e.g., a generalization of all "motherhood" rather than an extremely detailed portrait of a specific woman)

Relief Sculpture

an artwork, graphic in concept but sculptural in application, utilizing relatively shallow depth to establish images; the space development may range from very limited projection, known as low relief, to more exaggerated space development, known as high relief; relief sculpture is meant to be viewed frontally, not in the round

Repetition

the use of the same visual effect—and/or similar visual effects—a number of times in the same composition; repetition may produce the dominance of one visual idea, a feeling of harmonious relationship an obviously planned patter, or a rhythmic movement

Representational Art

a type of art in which the subject is presented through the visual art elements so that the observer is reminded of actual objects

Rhythm

a continuance, a flow, or a sense of movement achieved by the repetition of regulated visual unit; the sue of measured accents

Scale

the association of size relative to a constant standard or specific unit of measure related to human dimensions; for example, the Statue of Liberty's scale is apparent when she is seen next to an automobile

Sculpture

the art of shaping three-dimensional materials to express an idea

Shape

an area that stands out from its surroundings because of a defined or implied boundary or because of differences of value, color, or texture

Space

the interval, or measurable distance, between points or images; can be actual or illusionary

Style

the specific artistic character and dominant trends of form noted during periods of history and art movements; style may also refer to artists' expressive use of media to give their works individual character

Subject

1. in a descriptive approach to art, refers to the persons or things represented; 2. in more abstract applications, refers to visual images that may have little to do with anything experienced in the natural environment

Subjective

that which is derived from the mind, instead of physical reality, and reflects a personal bias, emotion, or innovative interpretation; the opposite of objective

Substitution

in sculpture, replacing one material or medium with another

Subtraction

a sculptural term meaning the carving or cutting away of material

Symmetry

the exact duplication of appearances in mirror-like repetition on either side of a (usually imaginary) straight-lined central axis

Technique

the manner and skill with which artists employ their tools and materials to achieve an expressive effect

Tectonic

the quality of simple massiveness; three-dimensional work lacking any significant extrusions or intrusions

Three-Dimensional

possesses the dimensions of (or illusions of) height, width, and depth; in the graphic arts, the feeling of depth is an illusion, while in the plastic arts, the work has actual depth

Transparency

a visual quality in which a distant image or element can be seen through a nearer one

Two-Dimensional

possesses the dimensions of height and width, especially when considering the flat surface, or picture plane

Unity

the result of bringing the elements of art into the appropriate ratio between harmony and variety to give a sense of oneness

Variety

differences achieved by opposing, contrasting, changing, elaborating, or diversifying elements in a composition to add individualism and interest; variety is an important principle of organization

Visual Unity

a sense of visual oneness—an organization of the elements into a visual whole; visual unity results from the appropriate ratio between harmony and variety (in conjunction with the other principles of organization)

Volume

the measurable amount of defined, or occupied space in a three-dimensional object

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