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Anything that has mass and takes up space

Solids
Liquids
Gases

Chemistry

is the study of the properties of matter and how matter changes

Every form of matter has 2 kinds of properties:

Physical
Chemical

Physical Properties

Characteristics that can be observed without changing it into a different substance

Properties of Matter

Texture, Phase changes, Appearance, Flexibility, Conductivity, and Ability to dissolve

Chemical Properties

Ability to change into a different substance with different properties

Physical Changes in Matter

Any change that alters the form or appearance of matter (change in size, shape, color, state, density)
No new substance is formed

Chemical changes

Substance is transformed into a different substance with different properties
Combustion (burning)
Electrolysis
Oxidation (rusting)
Tarnishing

The Law of Conservation of Mass

Matter is never created or destroyed, it only changes.
The products may change, but the mass will stay the same

Elements

Simplest substances

An element that can't be broken down any further by physical or chemical means

Represented by 1-2 letter symbols

Atoms

Basic particle from which all elements are made

Atoms are made of what

Protons (+ charge)
Neutrons (neutral)
Electron Cloud (- charge)

Molecules

2 or more atoms chemically combined

Chemical bond

force of attraction between atoms

Compounds

Pure substance of 2 or more elements chemically combined

Set ratios of atoms

(C6H12O6)

Mixture

Made of 2 or more substances
Physically combined so can be physically separated
No set ratio

Mixtures

Heterogenous
Homogenous
Solutions
Colloids

Weight

Measure of the force of gravity
Weight changes on different planets because gravity is different

Mass

How much matter is in an object
Not affected by gravity

Volume

The amount of space that matter occupies

Units of Volume

Liter (L)
Milliliter (ml)
Cubic centimeter (cm3)

Units =

cm x cm x cm = cm3

Density

Relates the mass to the volume
The amount of matter and how much space it occupies

Unit of measure is

g/ml or g/cm3

Calculation of density

Mass ÷ Volume = Density OR M/V=D

Each element has a specific what

density

Every chemical or physical change requires a transfer of energy - either what

absorbing or releasing

Types of energy

Chemical, Electrical, Biomass, Solar, Nuclear, Electromagnetic, and others

Temperature

The average kinetic energy of molecules

Thermal energy (heat)

The average potential and kinetic energy of molecules (actual energy)

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