sweeping change in the scientific view of the universe that occurred in the 16th and 17th centuries. new scientific concepts, methods of their construction become standards for assessing the validity of knowledge in the West
Polish priest, astronomer. Published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, which established a heliocentric universe but kept many ideas from Ptolemy
Danish astronomer, advocated geocentric universe. Constructed his own scientific instruments and made extensive naked-eye observations that produced a vast body of astronomical data.
German astronomer, Brahe's assistant. Believed Copernican theories, and discovered the planets' elliptical orbits around the sun. Wrote The New Astronomy.
Italian mathematician and natural philosopher, used a telescope to make new observations which he used to support Copernican theories and a universe of mathematical laws. Had rhetorical/political skills, but was condemned by the Catholic Church and was forced to renounce his views.
Englishman, published Principia Mathematica regarding the laws of gravity. Believed in empiricism.
Englishman, called the father of empiricism and scientific experimentation. Believed in finding new knowledge over the wisdom of ancients, and in practical uses of science toward human improvement.
mathematician, invented analytic geometry. Developed scientific method based on deduction. Distrusted all things except those he could know without a doubt, divided existence into mind and body.
political philosopher, wrote Leviathan to justify a strong central political authority. Characterized humans as beings subject to primal urges who would devolve into constant war and chaos without a sovereign power with an absolute government.
philosopher, wrote two Treatises of Government in support of a responsible, responsive government that could be deposed if it overstepped its bounds. Believed humans were naturally good and reasonable, wanted religious toleration for all Protestants.
French mathematician, physical scientist. Wanted to refute dogmatism and skepticism. Thought religion, God, outside of reason and was better to bet on God's existence than against it.
Jewish writer, wrote Ethics, closely linked God and nature. Advocated use of reason, naturalism instead of formal religion.
Rembrandt van Rijn
Dutch painter, etcher. Depicted contemporary life in baroque style.
Queen Christina of Sweden
woman from elite class, patronized the New Sciences, especially Rene Descartes
noblewoman, wife of duke of Newcastle. Participated in discussions with natural philosophers, wrote philosophy books and was allowed to visit a meeting of the Royal Society of London.
theory that the planets revolve around the sun
believing in the superiority of one's own ethnic and cultural group, and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups
use of experimentation and observation derived from sensory experience to construct scientific theory or philosophy of knowledge
belief in reason and logic as the primary source of knowledge
law of universal gravitation
the scientific law that states that every object in the universe attracts every other object, as stated by Isaac Newton
gradual improvement or growth or development
the disbelief in any claims of ultimate knowledge
"blank page." Locke's idea that all humans are born blank and their personalities are formed by their life experiences
Discovered a comet and worked jointly with husband, recognized by peers. Rejected to continue husband's work at Berlin Academy of Sciences. Forced to abandon astronomy.
a woman skilled in aiding the delivery of babies
a member of a rich and powerful family
Charter of the Nobility
1785 - Catherine the Great legally defined the rights and privileges of noblemen and women in exchange for the assurance that the nobility would serve the state voluntarily
English agricultural improver, devised the seed drill, started use of iron plows.
English agricultural improver, used fertilizers, instituted crop rotation, allowing better soil, more crops, more livestock, more fertilizer.
English agricultural improver, pioneered new methods of animal breeding
consolidation or fencing in of common lands by British landlords to increase production and achieve greater profits. Also reclamation of waste land, turning strips into block fields.
machine invented in England by James Hargreaves around 1765 to mass-produce thread
water-powered device invented by Richard Arkwright to produce more durable cotton fabric. Led to shift in the production of cotton textiles from households to factories.
Invented by Thomas Newcomen, perfected by James Watt. Permitted industrialization to grow, first steady, portable source of power, applicable to many uses.
life and institutions of pre-revolutionary Europe, characterized by tradition, hierarchy, a corporate feeling, and privilege
practice of forced labor for French peasants required by a seigneur
practice of moving away from home after marriage to form own independent household